Volume 13, Issue 4 (Winter 2019)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2019, 13(4): 494-505 | Back to browse issues page


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Ahmadi S M, Fathi M, RashidLamir A, Aminian F. Effects of 8 Weeks Aerobic Training on Plasma Ghrelin Level and Ghrelin Lymphocyte Gene Expression in Elderly Men. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2019; 13 (4) :494-505
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1336-en.html
1- Department of Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2- Department of Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. , mfathei@um.ac.ir
3- Department of Physiology, Faculty of Humanities, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran.
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Extended Abstract
1. Objectives

Appetite is among the most influential factors in energy homeostasis and its regulation plays an important role in controlling energy balance [1]. The environmental factors involved in energy homeostasis and appetite regulation are often controlled by long-term signals such as ghrelin, cholecystokinin, and peptide YY [2]. Ghrelin, an acylated upper gastrointestinal peptide, is the only known orexigenic hormone [2]. According to studies, of 3 types of mutations in the preproghrelin gene, only 1 is associated with obesity in humans [3]. Thus, overweight and obesity and its related diseases have become a major economic problem in many countries due to their high health and medical costs. The positive effects of exercise and physical activity on preventing obesity and overweight have been reported [4]. The current study evaluated the effect of aerobic training on plasma ghrelin level and the expression of ghrelin lymphocyte gene in elderly men.

2. Methods and Materials
In this quasi-experimental study, 30 elderly men with an average age of 60-70 years and Body Mass Index (BIM) of 25-30 kg/m2 participated. The subjects were selected using convenience and purposeful sampling methods. They were then randomly divided into 2 groups of training (n=15) and control (n=15). Those in the training group received aerobic training for 8 weeks; 4 sessions per week. The duration of each session was 50-60 minutes. The intervention program included: 1. A 10-minute warmup; 2. Aerobic training for 50-60 minutes with an intensity of 60-85% of the maximum heart rate. The training time gradually increased from 20 minutes at the beginning to 45 minutes at the end; and 3. A 10-minute cool down. The intensity of training was measured by a heart rate sensor (Polar, England).
Blood samples were collected 48 hours before initiating the training and 24 hours after the last training session, to measure plasma ghrelin levels using ELISA method, and the expression of ghrelin lymphocyte gene using semiquantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis with the sequence of forward primer (5’-ATGTGGAACGCGACCCCCAGCGA-3’) and reverse primer (5′-ACCCCCAATTGTTTCCAGACCCAT-3′). The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS. The between-group and within-group comparisons were conducted using repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The obtained results were evaluated at a significance level of P<0.05. This paper was extracted from a master thesis and has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Sport Sciences at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (code: 18731).

3. Results
According to the obtained results, no significant differences were found between the 2 study groups in terms of height, BMI, body fat percentage, plasma ghrelin level and the expression of ghrelin lymphocyte gene. ANOVA results presented in Table 1, indicated that an 8-week aerobic training with an intensity of 60-85% of the maximum heart rate could significantly reduce BMI from 27.57 to 26.90 kg/m2 (P=0.001) and body fat percentage from 24.31% to 21.43 % (P=0.001), and could significantly increase the expression of ghrelin lymphocyte gene from 16.87% to 24.92%. Moreover, plasma ghrelin level increased from 0.64 to 0.71 ng/mL; however, this increase was not significant.
The Independent t-test results regarding between-group comparison of posttest mean scores suggested no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of BMI, body fat percentage, and the expression of ghrelin lymphocyte gene (P>0.05) after the intervention. However, in terms of plasma ghrelin level, a significant difference was observed between the groups. In other words, aerobic training had a significant effect on the increase of plasma ghrelin level in the elderly men.

 


 

4. Conclusion
An 8-week aerobic exercise resulted in a significant decrease in body fat percentage and BMI in the training group. However, the expression of ghrelin lymphocyte gene significantly increased. No significant difference was observed in plasma ghrelin level after the intervention. Therefore, regular aerobic exercise can be used as a non-pharmacological treatment in regulating the balance of peptide hormones, effective in the prevalence of obesity. Possibly, the aerobic exercise causes a negative energy balance in the body. In response to energy shortages, ghrelin stimulates food intake, resupplies lost energy resources, and restores energy balance to compensate for energy reserves in the body. Further studies are required for the recognition of main mechanisms responsible for the association of ghrelin with obesity and the role of physical activity on them.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

All ethical principles were considered in this article. The participants were informed about the purpose of the research and its implementation stages; they were also assured about the confidentiality of their information; Moreover, They were allowed to leave the study whenever they wish, and if desired, the results of the research would be available to them. This paper has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Sport Sciences at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (code: 18731).

Funding
The present paper was extracted from the MSc. thesis of the first author, in Department of Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.

Authors contributions
All authors contributed in preparing this article.

Conflict of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.




 
References
 
  1. Cheng MH, Bushnell D, Cannon DT, Kern M. Appetite regulation via exercise prior or subsequent to high-fat meal consumption. Appetite. 2009; 52(1):193-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2008.09.015]
  2. Issazadeh R. Effect of twelve weeks combined exercise (aerobicresistance) on plasma levels of ghrelin and obestatin in obese adolescens. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2016; 22(141):91-103.
  3. Cummings DE. Ghrelin and the short-and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight. Physiology & Behavior. 2006; 89(1):71-84. [DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.05.022]
  4. Cummings DE, Shannon MH. Roles for ghrelin in the regulation of appetite and body weight. Archives of Surgery. 2003; 138(4):389-96. [DOI:10.1001/archsurg.138.4.389]
  5. Ukkola O, Ravussin E, Jacobson P, Snyder EE, Chagnon M, Sjöström L, Bouchard C. Rapid communications: Mutations in the preproghrelin/ghrelin gene associated with obesity in humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2001; 86(8):3996-9. [DOI:10.1210/jcem.86.8.7914] [PMID]
  6. Date Y, Nakazato M, Hashiguchi S, Dezaki K, Mondal MS, Hosoda H, et al. Ghrelin is present in pancreatic α-cells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion. Diabetes. 2002; 51(1):124-9. [DOI:10.2337/diabetes.51.1.124]
  7. Korbonits M, Goldstone AP, Gueorguiev M, Grossman AB. Ghrelin—a hormone with multiple functions. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. 2004; 25(1):27-68.
  8. Woods SC, Benoit SC, Clegg DJ, Seeley RJ. Regulation of energy homeostasis by peripheral signals. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2004; 18(4):497-515. [DOI:10.1016/j.beem.2004.08.004]
  9. Banks E, Lim L, Seubsman SA, Bain C, Sleigh A. Relationship of obesity to physical activity, domestic activities, and sedentary behaviours: cross-sectional findings from a national cohort of over 70,000 Thai adults. BMC Public Health. 2011; 11:762. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-762]
  10. Kraemer RR, Castracane VD. Exercise and humoral mediators of peripheral energy balance: Ghrelin and adiponectin. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2007; (2):184-94.
  11. Olcucu B, Vatansever S, Koparan S, Mulazimoglu O, Çınar V. Effect of moderate intensity exercise on ghrelin and leptin hormones. Life Sciences. 2015; 5(3):1301-6.
  12. Azizi M. Serum leptin and ghrelin changes-induced aerobic training in healthy young females. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health. 2012; 4(6):1257-64.
  13. Sternfeld B, Ainsworth BE, Quesenberry JR CP. Physical activity patterns in a diverse population of women. Preventive Medicine. 1999; 28(3):313-23. [DOI:10.1006/pmed.1998.0470]
  14. Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature. 1999; 402(6762):656-60. [DOI:10.1038/45230]
  15. Aghapour A, Farzanegi P. Effect of six-week aerobic exercise on Chemerin and Resistin concentration in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Electronic Physician. 2013; 5(1):623-30. 
  16. Fathi R, Ghanbari-Niaki A, Rahbarizadeh F, Hedayati MA, Ghahramanloo E, et al. The effect of exercise on plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations and gastrocnemius muscle mRNA expression in male rats. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2009; 10(5):519-26.
  17. Nuri R, Moghaddasi M, Darvishi H, Izadpanah A. Effect of aerobic exercise on leptin and ghrelin in patients with colorectal cancer. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. 2016; 12(1):169-74. [DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.155982]
  18. Parvizi A, Ghasemnian A, Rahmani A. [Effect of 12 weeks aerobic exercise for along with folic acid supplementation on the levels of the ghrelin hormone amount of food intake and weight changes of female Wistar rats (Persian)]. Armaghan-e Danesh. 2016; 21(8):746-56.
  19. Keikhosravi F, Shah HM, Daryanoush F, Hosseini SA, Noura M, Hasanpour G, et al. The effect of eight weeks moderate Intensity aerobic training on obestatin and ghrelin of obese male rats. Researcher in Sport Science Quarterly. 2011; 2(1):18-25.
  20. Ghelardoni S, Carnicelli V, Frascarelli S, Ronca-Testoni S, Zucchi R. Ghrelin tissue distribution: comparison between gene and protein expression. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2006; 29(2):115-21. [DOI:10.1007/BF03344083]
  21. Morpurgo PS, Resnik M, Agosti F, Cappiello V, Sartorio A, Spada A. Ghrelin secretion in severely obese subjects before and after a 3-week integrated body mass reduction program. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2003; 26(8):723-7. 
  22. Chen JX, Zhao X, Yue GX, Wang ZF. Influence of acute and chronic treadmill exercise on rat plasma lactate and brain NPY, LENK, DYN A 1–13. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. 2007; 27(1):1-10. [DOI:10.1007/s10571-006-9110-4]
  23. Hansen TK, Dall R, Hosoda H, Kojima M, Kangawa K, Christiansen JS, et al. Weight loss increases circulating levels of ghrelin in human obesity. Clinical Endocrinology. 2002; 56(2):203-6. [DOI:10.1046/j.0300-0664.2001.01456.x]
  24. Tschöp M, Weyer C, Tataranni PA, Devanarayan V, Ravussin E, Heiman ML. Circulating ghrelin levels are decreased in human obesity. Diabetes. 2001; 50(4):707-9. [DOI:10.2337/diabetes.50.4.707]
  25. Tolle V, Kadem M, Bluet-Pajot MT, Frere D, Foulon C, Bossu C, et al. Balance in ghrelin and leptin plasma levels in anorexia nervosa patients and constitutionally thin women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2003; 88(1):109-16. [DOI:10.1210/jc.2002-020645]
  26. Shiiya T, Nakazato M, Mizuta M, Date Y, Mondal MS, Tanaka M, et al. Plasma ghrelin levels in lean and obese humans and the effect of glucose on ghrelin secretion. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2002; 87(1):240-4. [DOI:10.1210/jcem.87.1.8129]
  27. Andrews ZB, Liu ZW, Walllingford N, Erion DM, Borok E, Friedman JM, et al. UCP2 mediates ghrelin’s action on NPY/AgRP neurons by lowering free radicals. Nature. 2008; 454(7206):846-51. [DOI:10.1038/nature07181]
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2018/06/13 | Accepted: 2018/11/10 | Published: 2019/01/01

References
1. Cheng MH, Bushnell D, Cannon DT, Kern M. Appetite regulation via exercise prior or subsequent to high-fat meal consumption. Appetite. 2009; 52(1):193-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2008.09.015] [DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2008.09.015]
2. Issazadeh R. Effect of twelve weeks combined exercise (aerobicresistance) on plasma levels of ghrelin and obestatin in obese adolescens. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2016; 22(141):91-103.
3. Cummings DE. Ghrelin and the short-and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight. Physiology & Behavior. 2006; 89(1):71-84. [DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.05.022] [DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.05.022]
4. Cummings DE, Shannon MH. Roles for ghrelin in the regulation of appetite and body weight. Archives of Surgery. 2003; 138(4):389-96. [DOI:10.1001/archsurg.138.4.389] [DOI:10.1001/archsurg.138.4.389]
5. Ukkola O, Ravussin E, Jacobson P, Snyder EE, Chagnon M, Sjöström L, Bouchard C. Rapid communications: Mutations in the preproghrelin/ghrelin gene associated with obesity in humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2001; 86(8):3996-9. [DOI:10.1210/jcem.86.8.7914] [PMID] [DOI:10.1210/jcem.86.8.7914]
6. Date Y, Nakazato M, Hashiguchi S, Dezaki K, Mondal MS, Hosoda H, et al. Ghrelin is present in pancreatic α-cells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion. Diabetes. 2002; 51(1):124-9. [DOI:10.2337/diabetes.51.1.124] [DOI:10.2337/diabetes.51.1.124]
7. Korbonits M, Goldstone AP, Gueorguiev M, Grossman AB. Ghrelin—a hormone with multiple functions. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. 2004; 25(1):27-68. [DOI:10.1016/j.yfrne.2004.03.002] [PMID]
8. Woods SC, Benoit SC, Clegg DJ, Seeley RJ. Regulation of energy homeostasis by peripheral signals. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2004; 18(4):497-515. [DOI:10.1016/j.beem.2004.08.004] [DOI:10.1016/j.beem.2004.08.004]
9. Banks E, Lim L, Seubsman SA, Bain C, Sleigh A. Relationship of obesity to physical activity, domestic activities, and sedentary behaviours: cross-sectional findings from a national cohort of over 70,000 Thai adults. BMC Public Health. 2011; 11:762. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-762] [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-762]
10. Kraemer RR, Castracane VD. Exercise and humoral mediators of peripheral energy balance: Ghrelin and adiponectin. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2007; (2):184-94.
11. Olcucu B, Vatansever S, Koparan S, Mulazimoglu O, Çınar V. Effect of moderate intensity exercise on ghrelin and leptin hormones. Life Sciences. 2015; 5(3):1301-6.
12. Azizi M. Serum leptin and ghrelin changes-induced aerobic training in healthy young females. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health. 2012; 4(6):1257-64.
13. Sternfeld B, Ainsworth BE, Quesenberry JR CP. Physical activity patterns in a diverse population of women. Preventive Medicine. 1999; 28(3):313-23. [DOI:10.1006/pmed.1998.0470] [DOI:10.1006/pmed.1998.0470]
14. Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature. 1999; 402(6762):656-60. [DOI:10.1038/45230] [DOI:10.1038/45230]
15. Aghapour A, Farzanegi P. Effect of six-week aerobic exercise on Chemerin and Resistin concentration in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Electronic Physician. 2013; 5(1):623-30. [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Fathi R, Ghanbari-Niaki A, Rahbarizadeh F, Hedayati MA, Ghahramanloo E, et al. The effect of exercise on plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations and gastrocnemius muscle mRNA expression in male rats. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2009; 10(5):519-26.
17. Nuri R, Moghaddasi M, Darvishi H, Izadpanah A. Effect of aerobic exercise on leptin and ghrelin in patients with colorectal cancer. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. 2016; 12(1):169-74. [DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.155982] [DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.155982]
18. Parvizi A, Ghasemnian A, Rahmani A. [Effect of 12 weeks aerobic exercise for along with folic acid supplementation on the levels of the ghrelin hormone amount of food intake and weight changes of female Wistar rats (Persian)]. Armaghan-e Danesh. 2016; 21(8):746-56.
19. Keikhosravi F, Shah HM, Daryanoush F, Hosseini SA, Noura M, Hasanpour G, et al. The effect of eight weeks moderate Intensity aerobic training on obestatin and ghrelin of obese male rats. Researcher in Sport Science Quarterly. 2011; 2(1):18-25.
20. Ghelardoni S, Carnicelli V, Frascarelli S, Ronca-Testoni S, Zucchi R. Ghrelin tissue distribution: comparison between gene and protein expression. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2006; 29(2):115-21. [DOI:10.1007/BF03344083] [DOI:10.1007/BF03344083]
21. Morpurgo PS, Resnik M, Agosti F, Cappiello V, Sartorio A, Spada A. Ghrelin secretion in severely obese subjects before and after a 3-week integrated body mass reduction program. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2003; 26(8):723-7. [DOI:10.1007/BF03347353] [PMID]
22. Chen JX, Zhao X, Yue GX, Wang ZF. Influence of acute and chronic treadmill exercise on rat plasma lactate and brain NPY, LENK, DYN A 1–13. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. 2007; 27(1):1-10. [DOI:10.1007/s10571-006-9110-4] [DOI:10.1007/s10571-006-9110-4]
23. Hansen TK, Dall R, Hosoda H, Kojima M, Kangawa K, Christiansen JS, et al. Weight loss increases circulating levels of ghrelin in human obesity. Clinical Endocrinology. 2002; 56(2):203-6. [DOI:10.1046/j.0300-0664.2001.01456.x] [DOI:10.1046/j.0300-0664.2001.01456.x]
24. Tschöp M, Weyer C, Tataranni PA, Devanarayan V, Ravussin E, Heiman ML. Circulating ghrelin levels are decreased in human obesity. Diabetes. 2001; 50(4):707-9. [DOI:10.2337/diabetes.50.4.707] [DOI:10.2337/diabetes.50.4.707]
25. Tolle V, Kadem M, Bluet-Pajot MT, Frere D, Foulon C, Bossu C, et al. Balance in ghrelin and leptin plasma levels in anorexia nervosa patients and constitutionally thin women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2003; 88(1):109-16. [DOI:10.1210/jc.2002-020645] [DOI:10.1210/jc.2002-020645]
26. Shiiya T, Nakazato M, Mizuta M, Date Y, Mondal MS, Tanaka M, et al. Plasma ghrelin levels in lean and obese humans and the effect of glucose on ghrelin secretion. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2002; 87(1):240-4. [DOI:10.1210/jcem.87.1.8129] [DOI:10.1210/jcem.87.1.8129]
27. Andrews ZB, Liu ZW, Walllingford N, Erion DM, Borok E, Friedman JM, et al. UCP2 mediates ghrelin's action on NPY/AgRP neurons by lowering free radicals. Nature. 2008; 454(7206):846-51. [DOI:10.1038/nature07181] [DOI:10.1038/nature07181]

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