Volume 15, Issue 1 (Spring 2020)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2020, 15(1): 103-94 | Back to browse issues page

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Khudaei F, Taheri H R, Sohrabi M, Salari Zare M. The Effects of Attentional Instructions and Exercise with Resistance Socks on the Static and Dynamic Balance of Parkinson's Patients. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2020; 15 (1) :103-94
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1460-en.html
1- PhD. of Management of Motor Behavior and Sport, Department of Management of Motor Behavior and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, International Cumpes, Mashhad, Iran.
2- Professor, Department of Management of Motor Behavior and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. , hamidtaheri@um.ac.ir
3- Professor, Department of Management of Motor Behavior and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
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ging is an inevitable physiological and physical phenomenon. The same as other countries, the Iranian population is also becoming old. The statistics show that from 1957 to 2007, Iran’s elderly population rose almost 4.4 times, but the total population in the same period increased only 7.3 times. Consequently, Iran will also face the problem of an elderly population similar to other Asian countries in the near future. Thus the rise of the elderly population will be a major issue in economic, societal, and health care in the 21st century. Consideration of the geriatric, and their provision, protection and promotion of their mental health is of high significance. 
Depression is a very common disorder in the old ages, which is caused by some various factors associated with this stage of life. But an important point that will be effective for the health policy-making and educational/training programs in order to alleviate the said problem is awareness of the depression level and its concentration in different regions of our country, which is due to the fact that the population concentration in Iran depends on the different races. 
This study aims to measure the level of depression prevalence in different Iranian races. Therefore, not only the information required for programming on the alleviation of this problem will be provided, but also, regarding the different cultures and traditions of these races, such data will be regarded as the foundation for analyzing the impacts of different dimensions of this factor on the depression of the elderlies.

2. Methods & Materials  
Yesavage originally developed the GDS questionnaire in a set of 30 items. This questionnaire asked the people to answer the questions due to their feelings during past week. In 1986, the 15 question form of the questionnaire, including yes=1 and no=1 answers was provided. However, items 1, 5, 7, 11 and 13 in this questionnaire were scored differently and the “no” answer receives the score of 1. And the sum of the scores forms the depression score of each person. The scores show low, moderate and severe depression when those were between 5 and 8, 9 and 11, and above 12, respectively. 
In 2006, the Persian version of this questionnaire was prepared through translation, inverse translation, and matching them. The Persian 15-item questionnaire had also high Cronbach’s Alpha (0.9), split-half (0.98), and the test-retest (58.8). According to the demographic composition of Iran in 2001, Persians and Turkic races form two major components of Iran’s population with respectively 51 and 24. So, our study considered these population proportions and collected a sufficient sample from seven Iranian races: the Persian, Turkic, Kurd, Lur, Baloch, Arab, and Turkman races.
Initially, they were provided with the required explanations about the purpose of the study, and then the informed consent was obtained from those being a volunteer to participate in the study. The subjects were requested to fill in the GDS questionnaire. If the interviewees were illiterate, the researcher completed the questionnaire during the interview. After removing incomplete questionnaires, the information were analyzed by SPSS V. 22 software.

3. Result
The present research studied 1477 people between 60-92 years old. In general, 56.9% of the subjects were male and 44.5% of people were residents of the rural areas. The Chi-square test shows a significant relationship between the depression severity level and ethnicity in Iran (P<0.001, X2=197.14). As the Table 1 shows, the proportion of the depression severity level experience decreasing trend in all three Persians, Turkic, and Lurs. About half of them show no sign of depression (54.6% for Persians, 50% for Turkic, and 41% for Lur). In Persians and Turkic, the proportion of those suffering from low depression is about half of those having no depression. In none of these three races, the prevalence of moderate depression was no higher than 21% and the prevalence of severe depression was no higher than 8%.


In Lur and Turkmen races, the proportion of no-depressed people was approximately equal to low depression ones, but the depression above the moderate level is yet below 21% and in Turkmen even severe depression disappeared. Among Arabs, though the prevalence of the low depression is two times more than those not depressed, only 29% of subjects in this race suffer from moderate and severe levels of depression. Nonetheless, the situation is critical among the Baloch who only 18.2 percent of them are not depressed, and other 81.8% show some levels of depression (24.2% low, 27.3% moderate, and 30.3% severe depression). 
The dead couple of subjects were significantly more depressed than married counterparts (P<0.001, Table 1). The level of income, occupation, unemployment, and chronic diseases are other variables affect depression. Depression in Turkic and Turkmen individuals weren’t significantly different from Persian ones, but the depression rates in Kurd, Lur, Baloch, and Arab were 0.111, 0.107, 0.165 and 0.08 higher than Persian, respectively. However, gender, living place, age, and familial relationship with other people couldn’t significantly change the depression scores.

4. Conclusion
In accordance with the findings of the present study and past research, the government is required to make some major policies on reducing the depression in the whole country, especially for Baloch, Arabs, and Turkmen races and females. the growing rate of depression among the Arabs and Turkmen races and the 81.8% prevalence rate of depression among Baloch elderlies is alarming. Also, female suffered more by depression than men. Examining the variables impacting the depression of the elderly geriatric, due to the fact that those elderly with deceased spouse suffer from more (severe) depression, thus, some special attention to this group requires periodic screening and special education for their families. Another factor deserves attention in the national planning and general policy-making is the income of the elderly. Senior retirees should be engaged in social affairs and group plans and they should refrain from isolation. Creating a happy place for the elderly so that they pass their time there can also be effective.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

All ethical principles are considered in this article. The participants were informed about the purpose of the research and its implementation stages; they were also assured about the confidentiality of their information; moreover, they were free to leave the study whenever they wished, and if desired, the research results would be available to them. Also, this study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Birjand University of Medical Sciences (Code: IR.BUMS.REC.1396.226).
This work was supported by Birjand University of Medical Sciences under Grant Number 96-4414.
Authors' contributions
Conceptualization, Investigation, Resources, Writing - original draft preparation, Funding acquisition: All author; Methodology, Writing–review & editing, formal analysis, data curation, supervision: Elahe Allahyari.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.
The researchers would like to appreciate Dr. Torabi, Dr. Sedarat, Mr. Shirani, Mr. Shokouhi, Mr. Mohammadali Barati, Mr. Meysam Daghlavi, Mr. Ayyub Rezazadeh, Ms. Garnjiak Who have helped us preparing this article.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Physical Medicine
Received: 2017/12/20 | Accepted: 2018/06/30 | Published: 2020/04/01

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