Volume 12, Issue 4 (1-2018)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2018, 12(4): 458-466 | Back to browse issues page


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Abbasi M, Mirderikvand F, Adavi H, Hojati M. The Relationship Between Personality Traits (Neuroticism and Extraversion) and Self-Efficacy With Aging Depression . Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2018; 12 (4) :458-466
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1306-en.html
1- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Lorestan, Khoramabad, Iran. , abbasi.mohammad@hotmail.com
2- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Lorestan, Khoramabad, Iran.
3- Unit of Technology and Human Resources, Ministry of Education, Harsin, Kermanshah, Iran.
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Extended Abstract
1. Objectives

Elderly depression ranks the second among the various causes of disability in this era [1]. One of the psychological factors that play a significant role in elderly depression is personality traits [2, 3]. Neuroticism and extroversion are two critical personality traits that affect depression [4]. In a meta-analysis, Maloof et al. [5] demonstrated that mood disorders are associated with a particular pattern of personality traits. On the other hand, self-efficacy is described as a critical factor in depression among various psychosocial factors [6, 7]. Self-efficacy is the self-assessment of individual’s ability to perform a task and is a behavioral understanding that increases the possible commitment to a task and health-promotion behaviors [8]. The present study evaluated the role of neuroticism, extraversion, and self-efficacy in predicting elderly depression.
2. Methods & Materials
This is a descriptive-correlation study (approved by the Education Headquarter of Harsin City of Kermanshah Province, No. 640/1993). The study population consisted of retired teachers (males) in Harsin City in 2016. Total 173 individuals (aged 52-68 years) were selected as a sample using simple random sampling method. 200 questionnaires were distributed in the present study of which 173 were selected for analysis. The research tool consisted of three questionnaires: 
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)
The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) had 15 questions and was developed by Yesavage et al. in 1982 [9]. This tool was translated into Persian in Iran and standardized for the Iranian population. Its reliability coefficient was 0.9, and its validity was appropriate as estimated by factor analysis method [9]. The reliability coefficient of this questionnaire in the present study was 0.82 as determined by using Cronbach’s alpha test. 
Neo Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI)
In this study, the short form of the Neo Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) containing 60 questions was used. In this form, 12 items are assigned to measure each of the personality traits. The scoring of this questionnaire was performed on a 5-degree Likert scale (1-5). In this study, the reliability coefficient of neuroticism and extraversion subscales was 0.77 and 0.81 as determined using Cronbach’s alpha. 
General Self-Efficacy Inventory (GSE)
The General Self-Efficacy Inventory (GSE) includes 17 items on a Likert scale (1, completely disagree to 5, completely agree). In the scoring of this test, each item is given a score from 1-5 [10]. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.77 as determined using Cronbach’s alpha.
3. Results
Descriptive findings including the mean (standard deviation) were calculated for each variable. The mean elderly depression, neuroticism, extroversion, and self-efficacy were 7.83(3.65), 31.73(10.10), 36.55(7.88), and 41.53(48.11), respectively. In addition, the skewness (and kurtosis) of these variables were 0.17(-1.64), 0.64(-0.64), 0.28(-0.080), and -0.21(-1.21), respectively, which indicating the data normality. The multicollinearity was examined before analyzing the presumption of using multiple regressions to assess the independence of predictive variables. Multicollinearity is the condition when the predictor variables are highly correlated at 0.90. The correlation coefficients between the predictive variables are displayed in Figure 1, all of which are below 0.90, the multicollinearity is avoided.
Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the relationship between predictive variables (neuroticism, extraversion, and self-efficacy) and elderly depression. The correlation coefficients for the neuroticism with elderly depression (P<0.001, r=0.54), extraversion with elderly depression (r=-0.65, P<0.001), and self-efficacy with elderly depression (r=-0.66, P<0.001) were calculated, and all of them were significant at P<0.001. This data demonstrate that neuroticism is directly proportional to elderly depression. However, extraversion and self-efficacy are inversely proportional to elderly depression. In addition, regression analysis was performed using the Imus 24 to determine the role of personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and self-efficacy in the elderly depression. The results are presented in Figure 1.
As shown in Figure 1, the beta coefficients of neuroticism, extraversion, and self-efficacy are 0.16, -0.30, and -0.35, with a significant level of P<0.001. This data demonstrates that self-efficacy, extroversion, and neuroticism are the critical factors for the prediction of elderly depression. In summary, these three variables account for 51% of the variance in male teachers’ with elderly depression.
4. Conclusion
The present study provides evidence for the effective factors (neuroticism, extraversion, and self-efficacy) involved in elderly depression. Based on current findings, it can be speculated that neuroticism people, because of false cognitive assessments, do not give themselves the opportunity to evaluate the problem and do not understand the situation appropriately. This results in using inefficient coping style such as excitement, and these people tend to be depressed. In contrast, extraversion includes positive emotional styles and positive emotions, intimate interpersonal relationships, and high levels of interaction and social activity [11]. On the other hand, self-efficacy with beta -0.35 had a negative and significant effect on depression in elderly. Kim [12] reports that depression is associated with weak self-efficacy beliefs. Individuals with poor self-efficacy beliefs avoid dealing with barriers and set high standards for themselves in an unrealistic manner. Therefore, these individuals face successive failures which lead to a feeling of deprivation and depression.
Acknowledgments
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declared no conflicts of interest.
 
References
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  2. Shahbazzadegan B, Farmanbar R, Ghanbari A, Atrkar Z, Adib M. [The effect of regular exercise on self-esteem in elderly residents in nursing homes (Persian)]. Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences & Health Services. 2007; 4(8):387-93.
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  8. Imel ZE, Malterer MB, McKay KM, Wampold BE. A meta-analysis of psychotherapy and medication in unipolar depression and dysthymia. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2008; 110(3):197-206. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2008.03.018
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  11. Norton MC, Singh A, Skoog I, Corcoran C, Tschanz JT, Zandi PP, et al. Church attendance and new episodes of major depression in a community study of older adults: The cache county study. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 2008; 63(3): 129-137. doi: 10.1093/geronb/63.3.p129
  12. Kleinke CL. Coping with life challenges. [SH. Mohamadkhani, Persian Trans]. Tehran: Resane-ye Takhasosi Press; 2007.
  13. Qiu F, Akiskal HS, Kelsoe JR, Greenwood TA. Factor analysis of temperament and personality traits in bipolar patients: Correlates with comorbidity and disorder severity. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2017; 207: 282-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.031
  14. Berg JM, Kennedy JC, Dunlop BW, Ramirez CL, Stewart LM, Nemeroff CB, et al. The structure of personality disorders within a depressed sample: Implications for personalizing treatment. Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry. 2017; 1-2:59–64. doi: 10.1016/j.pmip.2016.12.005
  15. Leandro PG, Castillo MD. Coping with stress and its relationship with personality dimensions, anxiety, and depression. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2010; 5:1562-73. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.326
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  18. Campbell-Sills L, Cohan SL, Stein MB. Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2006; 44(4):585-99. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.05.001
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  20. Tugade MM, Fredrickson BL. Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2004; 86(2):320-33. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.86.2.320.
  21. Fridrickson BL. The role of positive emotion in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotion. American Psychologist. 2001; 56(3):218-26. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.56.3.218
  22. Deater-Deckard K, Ivy L, Smith J. Resilience in gene-environment transactions. In: Goldstein S, Brooks RB, editors. Handbook of Resilience in Children. Berlin: Springer; 2005. 
  23. Harkness KL, Michael Bagby R, Joffe RT, Levitt A. Major depression, chronic minor depression, and the five‐factor model of personality. European Journal of Personality. 2002; 16(4):271-81. doi: 10.1002/per.441
  24. Petersen T, Papakostas GI, Bottonari K, Iacoviello B, Alpert JE, Fava M, Nierenberg AA. NEO-FFI factor scores as predictors of clinical response to fluoxetine in depressed outpatients. Psychiatry Research. 2002; 109(1):9-16. doi: 10.1016/s0165-1781(01)00359-6
  25. Malouff JM, Thorsteinsson, EB, & Schutte NS. The Relationship between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Symptoms of Clinical Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 2005; 27(2):101-114. doi: 10.1007/s10862-005-5384-y
  26. Frokjaer VG, Mortensen EL, Nielsen FÅ, Haugbol S, Pinborg LH, Adams KH, et al.. Frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding in healthy subjects is associated with personality risk factors for affective disorder. Biological Psychiatry. 2008; 63(6):569-76. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.07.009
  27. Rosellini AJ, Lawrence AE, Meyer JF, Brown TA. The effects of extraverted temperament on agoraphobia in panic disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2010; 119(2):420-26. doi: 10.1037/a0018614
  28. Karsten J, Penninx BW, Riese H, Ormel J, Nolen WA, Hartman CA. The state effect of depressive and anxiety disorders on big five personality traits. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2012; 46(5):644-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.01.024
  29. Koorevaar AM, Comijs HC, Dhondt AD, van Marwijk HW, Van Der Mast RC, Naarding P, Voshaar RO, Stek ML. Big Five personality and depression diagnosis, severity and age of onset in older adults. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2013; 151(1):178-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.075
  30. Heerman WJ, Taylor JL, Wallston KA, Barkin SL. Parenting self-efficacy, parent depression, and healthy childhood behaviors in a low-income minority population: A cross-sectional analysis. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2017; 21(5):1156–65. doi: 10.1007/s10995-016-2214-7
  31. Cheung SK, Sun SY. Effects of self-efficacy and social support on the mental health conditions of mutual-aid organization members. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal. 2000; 28(5):413-22. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2000.28.5.413
  32. Zimmerman BJ. Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2000; 25(1):82-91. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1016
  33. Rigotti T, Schyns B, Mohr G. A short version of the occupational self-efficacy scale: Structural and construct validity across five countries. Journal of Career Assessment. 2008; 16(2):238-55. doi: 10.1177/1069072707305763
  34. Abdel-Khalek AM, Lester D. The association between religiosity, generalized self-efficacy, mental health, and happiness in Arab college students. Personality and Individual Differences. 2017; 109:12-6. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.12.010
  35. Schwarzer R, Boehmer S, Luszczynska A, Mohamed NE, Knoll N. Dispositional self-efficacy as a personal resource factor in coping after surgery. Personality and Individual Differences. 2005; 39(4):807-18. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2004.12.016
  36. Bandura A. Swimming against the mainstream: The early years from chilly tributary to transformative mainstream. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2004; 42(6):613-30. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.02.001
  37. Muris P. Relationships between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression in a normal adolescent sample. Personality and Individual Differences. 2002; 32(2):337-48. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(01)00027-7.
  38. Ehrenberg MF, Cox DN, Koopman RF. The relationship between self-efficacy and depression in adolescents. Adolescence. 1991; 26(102):361-74. PMID: 1927668
  39. Kim YH. Correlation of mental health problems with psychological constructs in adolescence: Final results from a 2-year study. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2003; 40(2):115-24. doi: 10.1016/s0020-7489(02)00037-8.
  40. Malakouti K, Fathollahi P, Mirabzadeh A, Salavati M, Kahani S. [Validation of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) in Iran. Research in Medicine (Persian)]. 2006; 30(4):361-369.
  41. Smith HM, Betz NE. Development and validation of a scale of perceived social self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment. 2000; 8(3):283-301. doi: 10.1177/106907270000800306
  42. Mak AS, Blewitt K, Heaven PC. Gender and personality influences in adolescent threat and challenge appraisals and depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences. 2004; 36(6):1483-96. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(03)00243-5
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2017/05/06 | Accepted: 2017/08/13 | Published: 2018/01/01

References
1. Aliakbari Dehkordi M, Peymanfar E, Mohtashami T, Borjali A. [ The comparison of different levels of religious attitude on sense of meaning, loneliness and happiness in life of elderly persons under cover of social wlfare organisation of Urmia city (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2015; 9(4):297-305.
2. Shahbazzadegan B, Farmanbar R, Ghanbari A, Atrkar Z, Adib M. [The effect of regular exercise on self-esteem in elderly residents in nursing homes (Per-sian)]. Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences & Health Services. 2007; 4(8):387-93.
3. Sajadi H, Biglarian A. [Quality of life among elderly women in Kahrizak charity foundation, Tehran, Iran (Persian)]. Payesh. 2007, 6(2):105-8.
4. Riahi ME. [Comparative study on the status of elderly in the traditional and modern societies. (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2009; 2008; 3(3 and 4):10-21.
5. Maleki Pirbazar, M, Nouri R, Sarami G. [Social support and depression symptoms: The mediating role of self-efficacy (Persian)]. Contemporary Psycholo-gy. 2012; 6(2):26-34.
6. Lane R, McDonald G. Reducing the economic burden of depression. International clinical psychopharmacology. 1994; 9(4):229-44. doi: 10.1097/00004850-199400940-00002 [DOI:10.1097/00004850-199400940-00002]
7. Ashoori J. [Comparing the effectiveness of meta-cognitive therapy and schema therapy on decrease symptoms of anxiety and depression in nursing and midwifery students (Persian)]. Arak Medical University Journal. 2015; 18(2):50-61.
8. Imel ZE, Malterer MB, McKay KM, Wampold BE. A meta-analysis of psychotherapy and medication in unipolar depression and dysthymia. Journal of Af-fective Disorders. 2008; 110(3):197-206. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2008.03.018 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2008.03.018]
9. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Wil-liams & Wilkins; 2011
10. Nejati V, Ashayeri H. [Evaluation of relationship between depression and cognitive impairment in elderly (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2007; 1(2):112-18.
11. Norton MC, Singh A, Skoog I, Corcoran C, Tschanz JT, Zandi PP, et al. Church attendance and new episodes of major depression in a community study of older adults: The cache county study. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 2008; 63(3): 129-137. doi: 10.1093/geronb/63.3.p129 [DOI:10.1093/geronb/63.3.P129]
12. Kleinke CL. Coping with life challenges. [SH. Mohamadkhani, Persian Trans]. Tehran: Resane-ye Takhasosi Press; 2007.
13. Qiu F, Akiskal HS, Kelsoe JR, Greenwood TA. Factor analysis of temperament and personality traits in bipolar patients: Correlates with comorbidity and disorder severity. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2017; 207: 282-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.031 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.031]
14. Berg JM, Kennedy JC, Dunlop BW, Ramirez CL, Stewart LM, Nemeroff CB, et al. The structure of personality disorders within a depressed sample: Impli-cations for personalizing treatment. Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry. 2017; 1-2:59–64. doi: 10.1016/j.pmip.2016.12.005 [DOI:10.1016/j.pmip.2016.12.005]
15. Leandro PG, Castillo MD. Coping with stress and its relationship with personality dimensions, anxiety, and depression. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2010; 5:1562-73. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.326 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.326]
16. McCrae RR, Costa Jr PT. A five-factor theory of personality. In: John OP, Robins RW, Pervin LA, editors. Handbook of personality: Theory and research. New York: Guilford Press; 1999.
17. McCrae RR, Costa Jr PT. Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist. 1997; 52(5): 509-16. doi: 10.1037//0003-066x.52.5.509 [DOI:10.1037//0003-066X.52.5.509]
18. Campbell-Sills L, Cohan SL, Stein MB. Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2006; 44(4):585-99. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.05.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2005.05.001]
19. Watson D, Clark LA. On traits and temperament: General and specific factors of emotional experience and their relation to the five‐factor model. Journal of Personality. 1992; 60(2):441-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00980.x. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00980.x]
20. Tugade MM, Fredrickson BL. Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2004; 86(2):320-33. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.86.2.320. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.86.2.320]
21. Fridrickson BL. The role of positive emotion in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotion. American Psychologist. 2001; 56(3):218-26. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.56.3.218 [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218]
22. Deater-Deckard K, Ivy L, Smith J. Resilience in gene-environment transactions. In: Goldstein S, Brooks RB, editors. Handbook of Resilience in Children. Ber-lin: Springer; 2005. [DOI:10.1007/0-306-48572-9_4]
23. Harkness KL, Michael Bagby R, Joffe RT, Levitt A. Major depression, chronic minor depression, and the five‐factor model of personality. European Journal of Personality. 2002; 16(4):271-81. doi: 10.1002/per.441 [DOI:10.1002/per.441]
24. Petersen T, Papakostas GI, Bottonari K, Iacoviello B, Alpert JE, Fava M, Nierenberg AA. NEO-FFI factor scores as predictors of clinical response to fluoxe-tine in depressed outpatients. Psychiatry Research. 2002; 109(1):9-16. doi: 10.1016/s0165-1781(01)00359-6 [DOI:10.1016/S0165-1781(01)00359-6]
25. Malouff JM, Thorsteinsson, EB, & Schutte NS. The Relationship between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Symptoms of Clinical Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 2005; 27(2):101-114. doi: 10.1007/s10862-005-5384-y [DOI:10.1007/s10862-005-5384-y]
26. Frokjaer VG, Mortensen EL, Nielsen FÅ, Haugbol S, Pinborg LH, Adams KH, et al.. Frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding in healthy subjects is as-sociated with personality risk factors for affective disorder. Biological Psychiatry. 2008; 63(6):569-76. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.07.009 [DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.07.009]
27. Rosellini AJ, Lawrence AE, Meyer JF, Brown TA. The effects of extraverted temperament on agoraphobia in panic disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psycholo-gy. 2010; 119(2):420-26. doi: 10.1037/a0018614 [DOI:10.1037/a0018614]
28. Karsten J, Penninx BW, Riese H, Ormel J, Nolen WA, Hartman CA. The state effect of depressive and anxiety disorders on big five personality traits. Jour-nal of Psychiatric Research. 2012; 46(5):644-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.01.024 [DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.01.024]
29. Koorevaar AM, Comijs HC, Dhondt AD, van Marwijk HW, Van Der Mast RC, Naarding P, Voshaar RO, Stek ML. Big Five personality and depression diagnosis, severity and age of onset in older adults. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2013; 151(1):178-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.075 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.075]
30. Heerman WJ, Taylor JL, Wallston KA, Barkin SL. Parenting self-efficacy, parent depression, and healthy childhood behaviors in a low-income minority population: A cross-sectional analysis. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2017; 21(5):1156–65. doi: 10.1007/s10995-016-2214-7 [DOI:10.1007/s10995-016-2214-7]
31. Cheung SK, Sun SY. Effects of self-efficacy and social support on the mental health conditions of mutual-aid organization members. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal. 2000; 28(5):413-22. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2000.28.5.413 [DOI:10.2224/sbp.2000.28.5.413]
32. Zimmerman BJ. Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2000; 25(1):82-91. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1016 [DOI:10.1006/ceps.1999.1016]
33. Rigotti T, Schyns B, Mohr G. A short version of the occupational self-efficacy scale: Structural and construct validity across five countries. Journal of Career Assessment. 2008; 16(2):238-55. doi: 10.1177/1069072707305763 [DOI:10.1177/1069072707305763]
34. Abdel-Khalek AM, Lester D. The association between religiosity, generalized self-efficacy, mental health, and happiness in Arab college students. Personal-ity and Individual Differences. 2017; 109:12-6. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.12.010 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.12.010]
35. Schwarzer R, Boehmer S, Luszczynska A, Mohamed NE, Knoll N. Dispositional self-efficacy as a personal resource factor in coping after surgery. Personal-ity and Individual Differences. 2005; 39(4):807-18. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2004.12.016 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2004.12.016]
36. Bandura A. Swimming against the mainstream: The early years from chilly tributary to transformative mainstream. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2004; 42(6):613-30. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.02.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2004.02.001]
37. Muris P. Relationships between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression in a normal adolescent sample. Personality and Individual Differences. 2002; 32(2):337-48. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(01)00027-7. [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00027-7]
38. Ehrenberg MF, Cox DN, Koopman RF. The relationship between self-efficacy and depression in adolescents. Adolescence. 1991; 26(102):361-74. PMID: 1927668 [PMID]
39. Kim YH. Correlation of mental health problems with psychological constructs in adolescence: Final results from a 2-year study. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2003; 40(2):115-24. doi: 10.1016/s0020-7489(02)00037-8. [DOI:10.1016/S0020-7489(02)00037-8]
40. Malakouti K, Fathollahi P, Mirabzadeh A, Salavati M, Kahani S. [Validation of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) in Iran. Research in Medicine (Per-sian)]. 2006; 30(4):361-369.
41. Smith HM, Betz NE. Development and validation of a scale of perceived social self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment. 2000; 8(3):283-301. doi: 10.1177/106907270000800306 [DOI:10.1177/106907270000800306]
42. Mak AS, Blewitt K, Heaven PC. Gender and personality influences in adolescent threat and challenge appraisals and depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences. 2004; 36(6):1483-96. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(03)00243-5 [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00243-5]

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