Volume 12, Issue 4 (1-2018)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2018, 12(4): 482-493 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Saffarinia M, Dortaj A. Effect of Group Logotherapy on Life Expectancy and Mental and Social Wellbeing of The Female Elderly Residents of Nursing Homes in Dubai. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2018; 12 (4) :482-493
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1319-en.html
1- Department of Psychology, Tehran Branch, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran. , m.saffarinia@yahoo.com
2- Department of Health Psychology, Dubai Branch, Payame Noor University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Full-Text [PDF 2774 kb]   (3688 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (7115 Views)
Full-Text:   (5454 Views)
Extended Abstract
1. Objectives

Aging is the most important anthropological phenomenon of the 21st century [1]. Currently, many studies have focused on the issues of well-being, positive psychology, and life expectancy worldwide [2]. Therefore, the structures of life expectancy and psychosocial well-being can play an important role in promoting the health of the elderly. The present research aims to determine whether group logotherapy can improve the life expectancy and psychosocial well-being of elderly women living in nursing homes in Dubai. Thus, accordingly, the following hypotheses were proposed: 1. Group logotherapy increases the psychological well-being of elderly women in nursing homes; and 2. Group logotherapy increases the psychosocial well-being of elderly women in nursing homes.
2. Methods & Materials
This is a quasi-experimental research that included pretest-posttest with the control group. The study population included all Iranian Persian-speaking old women aged over 65 years and living in nursing homes in Dubai in 2015. Using the stratified random sampling method, a sample of 40 elderly women was selected from two nursing homes in Dubai. The two nursing homes were considered as two categories, and 20 subjects were randomly selected from each category. The selected participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received group logotherapy in 8 sessions of 1.5 hours each while the control group was placed on the waiting list. The participants completed the Schneider’s Life Expectancy Questionnaire [3], Reef’s Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire [4], and the Social Welfare Questionnaire [5] in the pre-test and post-test. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance.
The inclusion criteria included the willingness to participate in the research, being over 65 years old, not undergoing any other psychological treatment 6 months before entering the research, and the absence of psychological disorders according to the psychiatrist’s diagnosis. Participation in treatment sessions was solely for the purpose of observing ethical principles, and the participants could leave the study at any time of the study period. The participants were also informed that their information will remain confidential. The research work was ethically approved by the Payame Noor University in Dubai.
3. Results
The mean and standard deviation of the participants’ age in the experimental and control groups were 65.10±12.10 years and 67.12±11.8 years, respectively. Also, the mean and standard deviation of total scores of psychological well-being (445.31±35.95), life expectancy (37.01±2.13), and social well-being (27.99±3.06) were calculated in the post-test group. The demographic characteristics of the sample showed that 42.5% of the elderly women had under high school education, 40% had high school diploma, and 17.5% had a bachelor’s degree or higher. 
Of the total participants, 42.5% of the elderly were married, and 32.5% were divorced. It was also found that 67.5% of the participants were living in the nursing homes for less than five years, 22.5% for 5 to 10 years, and 10% for over ten years. Comparison of the experimental and control groups in the pre-test and post-test by t-test showed that the mean post-test scores of the experimental group were significantly different from the pre-test score of the same group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the control group scores in the pre-test and post-test. The use of analysis of covariance requires certain assumptions. An examination of these presumptions showed that the conditions for using ANCOVA test were established. 
The results of multivariate analysis of covariance showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups in the scores of psychological well-being (F=190.22, P<0.001), components of life expectancy including tracking thinking (F=44.32, P<0.001) and agent thinking (F=51.24, P<0.001), and components of social well-being including social cohesion (F=22.07, P<0.001), social participation (F=11.60, P=0.001), social flourishing (F=44.72, P<0.001), social integration (F=11.90, P<0.001), and social adoption (F=65.03, P<0.001). In other words, despite controlling the pre-test scores, the scores of psychological well-being, life expectancy, and social well-being components of the experimental group in the posttest showed a significant increase compared to the control group. 
Based on the Eta coefficient (effect size), 0.82, 0.66, 0.70, 0.72, 0.70, 0.74, 0.70 and 0.76% difference between the experimental and control groups was in the scores of psychological well-being, components of life expectancy including tracking thinking, ad agent thinking, and also social well-being components including social cohesion, social participation, social flourishing, social integration and social adoption (Table 1). Therefore, hypotheses 1 and two were approved, and the group logotherapy can improve life expectancy and psychosocial well-being of elderly women living in nursing homes.
4. Conclusion
Group logotherapy can be used as an effective strategy by mental health professionals in nursing homes. The logotherapy leads to elderly adaptation, life satisfaction, and good psychological sense in the elderly by giving meaning to the life. In other words, the group logotherapy can help the elderly to adapt to sadness, frustration, and illness by finding meaning in life and the support they receive in the group [6]. Also, mental health professionals can use group logotherapy as an effective way to improve the life expectancy and psychosocial well-being of elderly women living in nursing homes. 
It is also suggested that future research should investigate the effectiveness of group logotherapy on other positive psychological structures among the elderly men and women living in nursing homes. This research has some limitations: 1. It was conducted only on elderly women. Therefore, caution should be exercised in generalizing the results to elderly men; 2. The data were prepared using self-report questionnaires that may have response biases; and 3. This study had a cross-sectional design. Therefore, long-term studies are needed to clarify these effects.
Acknowledgments
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declared no conflicts of interest.
 
References
  1. Ocampo JM. Self-rated health: Importance of use in elderly adults. Colombia Médica. 2010; 41(3):275-89.
  2. Hosieni SM, Rezaei A, Keykhosravi Z. [A comparison of old men and women’s social support, life satisfaction, happiness and depression (Persian)]. Zan va Jame'e. 2012; 2(8):143-162. 
  3. Smedema SM, Chan JY, Phillips BN. Core self-evaluations and Snyder’s hope theory in persons with spinal cord injuries. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2014; 59(4):399-406. doi:‌ 10.1037/rep0000015
  4. Baily TC, Snyder CR. Satisfaction with life and hope: A look at age and marital status. Psychological Record. 2007; 57(2):233-40. doi: 10.1007/bf03395574
  5. Golparvar M, Bozorgmehri K, Kazemi MS. [Integrativerelationship between retirement syndromes components with general health symptoms among retired adults (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2011; 6(2):15-25. 
  6. Yancura LA, Aldwin CM. Coping and health in older adults. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2008; 10(1):10-5. doi: 10.1007/s11920-008-0004-7
  7. Arslantaş H, Adana F, Ergin FA, Kayar D, Acar G. Loneliness in elderly people, associated factors and its correlation with quality of life: A field study from Western Turkey. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2015; 44(1):43-50. PMCID: PMC4450013
  8. Alexander ES, Onwuegbuzie AJ. Academic procrastination and the role of hope as a coping strategy. Personality and Individual Differences. 2007; 42(7):1301-10. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.008
  9. Nejati V. [Assessing the health status of elderly people in the province of Qom (Persian)]. Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. 2007; 13(1):67-72. 
  10. Ryff C, Keyes C, Shmotkin D. Optimal well-being: The empirical encounter of two tradition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2002; 82(6):1007-22. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.82.6.1007
  11. Stamp E, Crust L, Swann C, Perry J, Clough P, Marchant D. Relationships between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate students. Personality and Individual Differences. 2015; 75:170-4. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.038
  12. Keyes CLM. Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing. American Psychologist. 2007; 62(2):95-108. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.62.2.95
  13. Ridgway IR, Sharpley C. Multiple measures for the prediction of counsellor trainee effectiveness. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy. 1990; 24(3): 165-77.
  14. Culliford L. Love, healing and happiness: Spiritual wisdom for secular times. New York: O-Books; 2007.
  15. Wong PTP. Meaning in life and meaning in death in successful aging. Ontario: International Network on Personal Meaning; 2000.
  16. Frankl VE. Man’s search for meaning. New York: Simon and Schuster; 1985.
  17. Porebrahim T, Etemadi A, ShafihAbadi A, Sarami G. [Comparing the effectiveness of Logotherapy group counseling and multi-paradigm Individual counseling on depression in elderly institutionalized in Tehran (Persian)]. Counseling Research & Developments. 2007; 6(21):49-68. 
  18. Heisel MJ. Suicide ideation in the elderly. Psychiatric Times. 2004; 21(3):50.
  19. Fakhar F, Navayinezhad S, Foroughan M. [The role of group counseling with logo-therapeutic approach on the mental health of older women (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2008; 3(1):58-67. 
  20. Ahmarian FSF, Falsafinejad MR. [The effects of group logo-therapy on life expectancy and sleep quality in elderlies of boarding center of Tehran city (Persian)]. Journal of Research on Religion & Health. 2015; 1(3):11-18. 
  21. Shogaeyan M, Sodani M, Moradi F. [The effectiveness of group logo therapy on the increase of life expectancy in retired men of the retirement center of Mamasani (Persian)]. Armaghane Danesh. 2014; 19(6):497-506. 
  22. Mehrinejad SA, Rajabi Moqaddam S. [Evaluating the effectiveness of logo therapy in increasing hope to life in addicts with short-term addiction recovery (Persian)]. Clinical Psychology Studies. 2012; 2(8):29-42. 
  23. Soleimani E, Khosravian B. [The effectiveness of group Logo therapy on marital satisfaction and psychological well-being of maladjusted couples (Persian)]. Journal of Family Counseling & Psychotherapy. 2017; 6(2):1-19. 
  24. Taghvaeenia A, Delavarizadeh S. [The effectiveness of group logotherapy on the increase of psychological well-being of the elderly retired women (Persian)]. Journal of Aging Psychology. 2017; 2(2):124-115. 
  25. Shojaee A, Eskandarpour B. [A study of the effectiveness of Frankel’s logotherapy training on psychological well-being and happiness of students (Persian)]. Journal of School Psychology. 2016; 5(2):71-91. 
  26. Ligimol J. The effect of logotherapy on meaning and quality of life of the elderly in old age homes [MA thesis]. Bengaluru: Christ University; 2012.
  27. Rebecca P, Jiaqing O. Association between care 10.1007/s11205-011-9891-9 giving, meaning in life, and life satisfaction beyond 50 in an Asian sample: Age as a moderator. Social Indicators Research. 2012; 108(3):525-34. 
  28. Psarra E, Kleftaras G. Adaptation to physical disabilities: The role of meaning in life and depression. The European Journal of Counselling Psychology. 2013; 2(1):79-99. doi: 10.5964/ejcop.v2i1.7
  29. Breitbar W, Gibson C, Berg A. Psychotherapeutic intervention at the end of life: a focus on meaning and spirituality. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2004; 49(6):336-72. doi: 10.1177/070674370404900605
  30. Snyder CR, Harris C, Anderson JR, Holleran SA, Irving LM, Sigmon ST, Harney P. The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1991; 60(4):570-85. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.60.4.570
  31. Tara F, Bahari F, Hamidi Poor R. [Effectiveness of group logo therapy on hope and general health of dialysis patients (Persian)]. Journal of Research in Behavioural Sciences. 13(2): 288-299.
  32. Ryff, CD. Happiness is everything or is it? Exploration on the meaning of psychological well – being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1989; 57(6):1069-81. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.57.6.1069
  33. Bayani AA, Mohammad Koochekya A, Bayani A. [Reliability and validity of Ryff’s psychological well-being scales (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry & Clinical Psychology. 2008; 14(2):146-51
  34. Keyes CLM. Social well-being. Social psychology Quarterly. 1998; 61(2):121-40. doi: 10.2307/2787065
  35. Heydari G, Ghanai Z. [The standardization of social well-being questionnaire (Persian)]. Thought and Behavior in Clinical Psychology. 2008; 2(7):31-40. 
  36. James L. The effect of logotherapy on meaning and quality of life of the elderly in old age homes [MA Thesis]. Bengaluru: Christ University; 2012.
  37. Martiny C, Silva ACDO, Neto JPS, Nardi AE. Factors associated with risk of suicide in patients with hemodialysis. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2011; 52(5):465-8. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2010.10.009
  38. Izadi F, Adib Hajbagheri M, Kafaei M. [Determining disturbing factors of sleep quality among hospitalized elderly patients in Kashan Hospitals, Iran 2009 (Persian)]. Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical sciences. 2013; 20(6):688-98. 
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2017/07/03 | Accepted: 2017/09/28 | Published: 2018/01/01

References
1. Ocampo JM. Self-rated health: Importance of use in elderly adults. Colombia Médica. 2010; 41(3):275-89.
2. Hosieni SM, Rezaei A, Keykhosravi Z. [A comparison of old men and women's social support, life satisfaction, happiness and depression (Persian)]. Zan va Jame'e. 2012; 2(8):143-162.
3. Smedema SM, Chan JY, Phillips BN. Core self-evaluations and Snyder's hope theory in persons with spinal cord injuries. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2014; 59(4):399-406. doi: 10.1037/rep0000015 [DOI:10.1037/rep0000015]
4. Baily TC, Snyder CR. Satisfaction with life and hope: A look at age and marital status. Psychological Record. 2007; 57(2):233-40. doi: 10.1007/bf03395574 [DOI:10.1007/BF03395574]
5. Golparvar M, Bozorgmehri K, Kazemi MS. [Integrativerelationship between retirement syndromes components with general health symptoms among retired adults (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2011; 6(2):15-25.
6. Yancura LA, Aldwin CM. Coping and health in older adults. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2008; 10(1):10-5. doi: 10.1007/s11920-008-0004-7 [DOI:10.1007/s11920-008-0004-7]
7. Arslantaş H, Adana F, Ergin FA, Kayar D, Acar G. Loneliness in elderly people, associated factors and its correlation with quality of life: A field study from Western Turkey. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2015; 44(1):43-50. PMCID: PMC4450013 [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Alexander ES, Onwuegbuzie AJ. Academic procrastination and the role of hope as a coping strategy. Personality and Individual Differences. 2007; 42(7):1301-10. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.008 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.008]
9. Nejati V. [Assessing the health status of elderly people in the province of Qom (Persian)]. Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. 2007; 13(1):67-72.
10. Ryff C, Keyes C, Shmotkin D. Optimal well-being: The empirical encounter of two tradition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2002; 82(6):1007-22. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.82.6.1007 [DOI:10.1037//0022-3514.82.6.1007]
11. Stamp E, Crust L, Swann C, Perry J, Clough P, Marchant D. Relationships between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate stu-dents. Personality and Individual Differences. 2015; 75:170-4. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.038 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.038]
12. Keyes CLM. Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing. American Psychologist. 2007; 62(2):95-108. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.62.2.95 [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.95]
13. Ridgway IR, Sharpley C. Multiple measures for the prediction of counsellor trainee effectiveness. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy. 1990; 24(3): 165-77.
14. Culliford L. Love, healing and happiness: Spiritual wisdom for secular times. New York: O-Books; 2007.
15. Wong PTP. Meaning in life and meaning in death in successful aging. Ontario: International Network on Personal Meaning; 2000.
16. Frankl VE. Man's search for meaning. New York: Simon and Schuster; 1985. [PMCID]
17. Porebrahim T, Etemadi A, ShafihAbadi A, Sarami G. [Comparing the effectiveness of Logotherapy group counseling and multi-paradigm Individual counseling on depression in elderly institutionalized in Tehran (Persian)]. Counseling Research & Developments. 2007; 6(21):49-68.
18. Heisel MJ. Suicide ideation in the elderly. Psychiatric Times. 2004; 21(3):50.
19. Fakhar F, Navayinezhad S, Foroughan M. [The role of group counseling with logo-therapeutic approach on the mental health of older women (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2008; 3(1):58-67.
20. Ahmarian FSF, Falsafinejad MR. [The effects of group logo-therapy on life expectancy and sleep quality in elderlies of boarding center of Tehran city (Per-sian)]. Journal of Research on Religion & Health. 2015; 1(3):11-18.
21. Shogaeyan M, Sodani M, Moradi F. [The effectiveness of group logo therapy on the increase of life expectancy in retired men of the retirement center of Ma-masani (Persian)]. Armaghane Danesh. 2014; 19(6):497-506.
22. Mehrinejad SA, Rajabi Moqaddam S. [Evaluating the effectiveness of logo therapy in increasing hope to life in addicts with short-term addiction recovery (Persian)]. Clinical Psychology Studies. 2012; 2(8):29-42.
23. Soleimani E, Khosravian B. [The effectiveness of group Logo therapy on marital satisfaction and psychological well-being of maladjusted couples (Per-sian)]. Journal of Family Counseling & Psychotherapy. 2017; 6(2):1-19.
24. Taghvaeenia A, Delavarizadeh S. [The effectiveness of group logotherapy on the increase of psychological well-being of the elderly retired women (Persian)]. Journal of Aging Psychology. 2017; 2(2):124-115.
25. Shojaee A, Eskandarpour B. [A study of the effectiveness of Frankel's logotherapy training on psychological well-being and happiness of students (Per-sian)]. Journal of School Psychology. 2016; 5(2):71-91.
26. Ligimol J. The effect of logotherapy on meaning and quality of life of the elderly in old age homes [MA thesis]. Bengaluru: Christ University; 2012.
27. Rebecca P, Jiaqing O. Association between care 10.1007/s11205-011-9891-9 giving, meaning in life, and life satisfaction beyond 50 in an Asian sample: Age as a moderator. Social Indicators Research. 2012; 108(3):525-34.
28. Psarra E, Kleftaras G. Adaptation to physical disabilities: The role of meaning in life and depression. The European Journal of Counselling Psychology. 2013; 2(1):79-99. doi: 10.5964/ejcop.v2i1.7 [DOI:10.5964/ejcop.v2i1.7]
29. Breitbar W, Gibson C, Berg A. Psychotherapeutic intervention at the end of life: a focus on meaning and spirituality. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2004; 49(6):336-72. doi: 10.1177/070674370404900605 [DOI:10.1177/070674370404900605]
30. Snyder CR, Harris C, Anderson JR, Holleran SA, Irving LM, Sigmon ST, Harney P. The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1991; 60(4):570-85. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.60.4.570 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.60.4.570]
31. Tara F, Bahari F, Hamidi Poor R. [Effectiveness of group logo therapy on hope and general health of dialysis patients (Persian)]. Journal of Research in Be-havioural Sciences. 13(2): 288-299.
32. Ryff, CD. Happiness is everything or is it? Exploration on the meaning of psychological well – being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1989; 57(6):1069-81. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.57.6.1069 [DOI:10.1037//0022-3514.57.6.1069]
33. Bayani AA, Mohammad Koochekya A, Bayani A. [Reliability and validity of Ryff's psychological well-being scales (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Psychia-try & Clinical Psychology. 2008; 14(2):146-51
34. Keyes CLM. Social well-being. Social psychology Quarterly. 1998; 61(2):121-40. doi: 10.2307/2787065 [DOI:10.2307/2787065]
35. Heydari G, Ghanai Z. [The standardization of social well-being questionnaire (Persian)]. Thought and Behavior in Clinical Psychology. 2008; 2(7):31-40.
36. James L. The effect of logotherapy on meaning and quality of life of the elderly in old age homes [MA Thesis]. Bengaluru: Christ University; 2012.
37. Martiny C, Silva ACDO, Neto JPS, Nardi AE. Factors associated with risk of suicide in patients with hemodialysis. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2011; 52(5):465-8. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2010.10.009 [DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2010.10.009]
38. Izadi F, Adib Hajbagheri M, Kafaei M. [Determining disturbing factors of sleep quality among hospitalized elderly patients in Kashan Hospitals, Iran 2009 (Persian)]. Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical sciences. 2013; 20(6):688-98.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Ageing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb