Volume 12, Issue 4 (1-2018)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2018, 12(4): 506-517 | Back to browse issues page


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Jamshidi O, Doostipasha M, Razavi S M H, Gudarzi M. Adjustment of Optimal Sports Site Selection Criteria for Elderly Using Analytical Hierarchy Process and Geographic Information System. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2018; 12 (4) :506-517
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1348-en.html
1- Department of Sports Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran. , omidjamshidi88@yahoo.com
2- Department of Sports Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
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Extended Abstract
1. Objectives

Aging is a critical period of life and considering the issues and needs of this stage is a social necessity. It should be noted that lack of attention to health and neglecting the behaviors promoting quality of life have resulted in health issues in the elderly [1]. Aging is a natural phenomenon associated with reduced physical, psychological, and psychological activities. The physiological changes are similar in different people, although the speed of changes can be different. Lack of attention to body and mind during this period accelerates the aging process and ultimately leads to premature death [2]. This highlights the importance of proper planning in the aging period. An ideal urban space is a space where citizenship justice is respected, and it can be used by all citizens, including vulnerable people [3]. In this regard, the present study was conducted with the aim of fitting optimal sports site selection criteria for the elderly.
2. Methods & Materials
The descriptive-analytic research method was employed in this applied research work, which was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Mazandaran University. This field study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, six important criteria for optimal sports site selection of older adults were determined by studying library resources. The indices extracted by a structured interview tool were used by eight experts in the field of sports and sports facilities for pair-wise comparison. 
The Expert Choice Software was used to analyze the data collected in this study. Since each type of sports facility has its own characteristics, they cannot be all together in the same place. In the second phase, 27 swimming pools of Karaj were selected, and the elderly referred to these sites were identified as the statistical population for this study. In this stage, a questionnaire designed using the indices determined in the first phase along with the four sub-criteria for each indicator was used. After collecting the data using the Analytical Hierarchy Process, the sub-criteria of each index were prioritized, and two sub-criteria with higher relative weights were determined for each of the indicators. Moreover, AutoCAD maps were prepared using AutoCAD 2015, Excel 2013, ArcGIS 9.3, Google Earth 7.1.8 or GPS device. In the third phase, we collected information for each of the prioritized sub-criteria to create a spatial research database. After exporting the layers used in the GIS environment and creating the topology, the information table was also completed and prepared for final analysis. Then, the location of each pool was determined according to the indicators.
3. Results
In the descriptive part of the research, the elderly are considered to be over 60 years old. According to the sampling method, 135 questionnaires were distributed, and finally, 127 completed questionnaires were collected. The majority of the sample size was male (66%). 
About 48% of the samples were aged between 60 and 65 years, 31% were aged between 65 and 70 years, and 21% were aged over 70 years. Regarding the employment situation, 41% of the samples were employed, and the remaining 59% were retired. Regarding the rate of sports activities per week, 46% of the respondents spent less than 6 hours a week while the remaining 54% spent more than 6 hours a week on sports activities. According to the data obtained from the pair-wise comparison matrix, the most effective criteria are accessibility, closeness to other urban utilities, safety, density of sports facilities, topographical features, and privacy. 
The three factors of accessibility, closeness to other urban utilities, and safety had the highest relative weights and were identified as important indicators. These factors, along with the sub-criteria for each criterion, were provided to some older adults attending sports facilities. The results showed that among the sub-criteria, access to metro lines and highways, closeness to parks and green spaces as well as cultural centers and appropriate location relative to medical and fire-fighting centers had achieved higher relative weights. The maps of each sub-criterion were obtained from the relevant organizations, and the geographic locations of the pools in Karaj were determined (Figure 1). The areas with distance 0 to 200 meters, 200 to 400 meters, and 400 to 600 meters of the desired feature range were identified. Finally, the locations of different pools in Karaj were shown based on the research indicators in a five-item scale (completely appropriate, appropriate, medium, inappropriate, and completely inappropriate).
4. Conclusion
The findings of this study showed that the most important factors affecting the optimal sports site selection for the elderly are accessibility, closeness to other urban utilities, safety, density of sports facilities, topographical features, and privacy. This finding is consistent with the studies by Zohrevandian et al. (2015) [18] and Hosseini et al. (2013) [6]. Access to metro lines and highways was found to be an important factor in accessing sports pools in Karaj. These studies had limitations such as the unavailability of an integrated research sample, a survey of a group of sports facilities (pools), and the difference in the types of customers. Certainly, sports activity in the elderly, in addition to maintaining mobility and reducing diseases, brings about excitement and rejuvenation, resulting in a healthy life.
Acknowledgments
This research was extracted from the corresponding author's PhD dissertation in the Department of Sports Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declared no conflicts of interest.
 
References
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  2. Ebrahami K. [Sports and dialogue among civilizations (Persian)]. Paper presented at: The First Congress of Women’s in Physical Education Organization. 5 August 2002; Tehran, Iran. 
  3. Gholizadeh A, Shirani E. [The relation between personal, family, social and economic factors with the rate of life satisfaction of aged people of Isfahan (Persian)]. Applied Sociology. 2010; 21(37):69-82. 
  4. Hamedivafa, F. [Ibn Sina and Jorjani's view on elderly health (Persian)]. Teb va Tazkiyeh. 2008; 16(1-2):70-7. 
  5. Higgs G. Integrating multi-criteria techniques with geographical information systems in waste facility location to enhance public participation. Waste Management & Research. 2006; 24(2):105–17. doi: 10.1177/0734242x06063817
  6. Hoseini SS, Kashef SM, Seyedameri MH. [Locating sport gyms through geographical information system; Case study: Saghez city (Persian)]. Pazhooheshhay-e Karbordi dar Modiriyat-e Varzeshi. 2012; 2(5):25-34.
  7. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. kaplan and sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.
  8. Wikipedia. [Karaj (Persian)] [Internet]. 2017 [Updated 2017 October 16]. Available from: https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DA%A9%D8%B1%D8%AC
  9. Khalili M, Mohjelshoja M, Esmaeili S, Bateni, GH. [The role of exercise in the elderly from the perspective of Razi, Hakim moyasari, Ibn Sina and Jorjani (Persian)]. History of Medical Journal. 2011; 3(7):57-76.
  10. Kochaki G, Hojjati H, Sanagoo A. [The Relationship between Loneliness and Life Satisfaction of the Elderly in Gorgan and Gonbad Cities (Persian)]. Journal of Research Development in Nursing & Midwifery. 2012; 9(1): 61-68.
  11. Kwok RCW, Yeh AGO. The use of modal accessibility gap as an indicator for sustainable transport development. Environment and Planning A. 2004; 36(5):921–36. doi: 10.1068/a3673
  12. Garatachea N, Molinero O, Martínez-García R, Jiménez-Jiménez R, González-Gallego J, Márquez S. Feelings of well being in elderly people: Relationship to physical activity and physical function. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2009; 48(3):306–12. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2008.02.010
  13. Elavsky S, McAuley E, Motl RW, Konopack JF, Marquez DX, Hu L, et al. Physical activity enhances long-term quality of life in older adults: Efficacy, esteem, and affective influences. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2005; 30(2):138–45. doi: 10.1207/s15324796abm3002_6
  14. Mokhtari M, Nezakatalhossaini M, Esfarjani F. The effect of 12-week pilates exercises on depression and balance associated with falling in the elderly. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2013; 70:1714–23. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.246
  15. Moti haghshenas, N. [Sociological aspects of aging populations and active aging challenges in Iran (Persian)]. Sociological Studies of Iran. 2011; 1(2):133-147. 
  16. Salami M. [Presentation and comparison three models of AHP-TAXONOMY, FAHP-FTOPSIS, FAHP-GCA in GIS space for site selection of sport places (Persian)] [PhD thesis]. Tehran: University of Tehran; 2014.
  17. Soltan Hoseini M,  Alidoust Ghahfarokhi E, Farahani A. [ Traffic and Natural Environmental Effects of Sport Stadiums On Urban Environment of Yazd (Persian)]. Journal of Sport Management Review. 2015, 6(24):15-30.
  18. Zohrevandian K, Asadi H, Ebrahimi F, Samadi M. [Determine and prioritizing criteria for site selection of sport facilities for equality in access using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) (Persian)]. Sport Management. 2015; 29:795-814. 
  19. Shakeri A, Salami F. [Factors affecting investment attraction in Chabahar Free zone and prioritizing them using AHP mathematical technique (Persian)]. Economics Research. 2006; 6(20):95-130.
  20. Statistical Center of Iran. [National Portal of Statistics (Persian)] [Internet] 2017 [Updated 2017 October 31, 2017]. Available from: https://www.amar.org.ir 
  21. Nafisi A. [Research on the principles of traditional medical beliefs of the Iranian people (Persian)]. Esfahan: Mash'al; 1985.
  22. Patterson SL. Effect of treadmill exercise training on spatial and temporal gait parameters in subjects with chronic stroke: A preliminary report. The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2008; 45(2):221–8. doi: 10.1682/jrrd.2007.02.0024
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2017/06/18 | Accepted: 2017/09/25 | Published: 2018/01/01

References
1. Alipour F, Sajadi H, Forouzan A, Biglarian A, Jalilian A. [Elderly quality of life in Tehran's district two (Persian)]. Iranian journal of ageing. 2008; 3(3-4):75-83.
2. Ebrahami K. [Sports and dialogue among civilizations (Persian)]. Paper presented at: The First Congress of Women's in Physical Education Organization. 5 August 2002; Tehran, Iran.
3. Gholizadeh A, Shirani E. [The relation between personal, family, social and economic factors with the rate of life satisfaction of aged people of Isfahan (Persian)]. Applied Sociology. 2010; 21(37):69-82.
4. Hamedivafa, F. [Ibn Sina and Jorjani's view on elderly health (Persian)]. Teb va Tazkiyeh. 2008; 16(1-2):70-7.
5. Higgs G. Integrating multi-criteria techniques with geographical information systems in waste facility location to enhance public participation. Waste Man-agement & Research. 2006; 24(2):105–17. doi: 10.1177/0734242x06063817 [DOI:10.1177/0734242X06063817]
6. Hoseini SS, Kashef SM, Seyedameri MH. [Locating sport gyms through geographical information system; Case study: Saghez city (Persian)]. Pazhoo-heshhay-e Karbordi dar Modiriyat-e Varzeshi. 2012; 2(5):25-34.
7. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. kaplan and sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Wil-liams & Wilkins; 2007.
8. Wikipedia. [Karaj (Persian)] [Internet]. 2017 [Updated 2017 October 16]. Available from: https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DA%A9%D8%B1%D8%AC
9. Khalili M, Mohjelshoja M, Esmaeili S, Bateni, GH. [The role of exercise in the elderly from the perspective of Razi, Hakim moyasari, Ibn Sina and Jorjani (Persian)]. History of Medical Journal. 2011; 3(7):57-76.
10. Kochaki G, Hojjati H, Sanagoo A. [The Relationship between Loneliness and Life Satisfaction of the Elderly in Gorgan and Gonbad Cities (Persian)]. Jour-nal of Research Development in Nursing & Midwifery. 2012; 9(1): 61-68.
11. Kwok RCW, Yeh AGO. The use of modal accessibility gap as an indicator for sustainable transport development. Environment and Planning A. 2004; 36(5):921–36. doi: 10.1068/a3673 [DOI:10.1068/a3673]
12. Garatachea N, Molinero O, Martínez-García R, Jiménez-Jiménez R, González-Gallego J, Márquez S. Feelings of well being in elderly people: Relationship to physical activity and physical function. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2009; 48(3):306–12. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2008.02.010 [DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2008.02.010]
13. Elavsky S, McAuley E, Motl RW, Konopack JF, Marquez DX, Hu L, et al. Physical activity enhances long-term quality of life in older adults: Efficacy, es-teem, and affective influences. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2005; 30(2):138–45. doi: 10.1207/s15324796abm3002_6 [DOI:10.1207/s15324796abm3002_6]
14. Mokhtari M, Nezakatalhossaini M, Esfarjani F. The effect of 12-week pilates exercises on depression and balance associated with falling in the elderly. Pro-cedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2013; 70:1714–23. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.246 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.246]
15. Moti haghshenas, N. [Sociological aspects of aging populations and active aging challenges in Iran (Persian)]. Sociological Studies of Iran. 2011; 1(2):133-147.
16. Salami M. [Presentation and comparison three models of AHP-TAXONOMY, FAHP-FTOPSIS, FAHP-GCA in GIS space for site selection of sport places (Persian)] [PhD thesis]. Tehran: University of Tehran; 2014.
17. Soltan Hoseini M, Alidoust Ghahfarokhi E, Farahani A. [ Traffic and Natural Environmental Effects of Sport Stadiums On Urban Environment of Yazd (Persian)]. Journal of Sport Management Review. 2015, 6(24):15-30.
18. Zohrevandian K, Asadi H, Ebrahimi F, Samadi M. [Determine and prioritizing criteria for site selection of sport facilities for equality in access using Ana-lytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) (Persian)]. Sport Management. 2015; 29:795-814.
19. Shakeri A, Salami F. [Factors affecting investment attraction in Chabahar Free zone and prioritizing them using AHP mathematical technique (Persian)]. Economics Research. 2006; 6(20):95-130.
20. Statistical Center of Iran. [National Portal of Statistics (Persian)] [Internet] 2017 [Updated 2017 October 31, 2017]. Available from: https://www.amar.org.ir
21. Nafisi A. [Research on the principles of traditional medical beliefs of the Iranian people (Persian)]. Esfahan: Mash'al; 1985.
22. Patterson SL. Effect of treadmill exercise training on spatial and temporal gait parameters in subjects with chronic stroke: A preliminary report. The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2008; 45(2):221–8. doi: 10.1682/jrrd.2007.02.0024 [DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2007.02.0024]

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