Volume 13, Issue 2 (7-2018)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2018, 13(2): 132-153 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Pourmahmoudian P, Noraste A A, Daneshmandi H, Atrkar Roshan Z. Functional Balance Assessment Scales in Elderly. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2018; 13 (2) :132-153
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1391-en.html
1- Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. , ppourmahmoudian@gmail.com
2- Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
3- Department of Statistics and Computer Sciences, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
Full-Text [PDF 1637 kb]   (4096 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (6172 Views)
Full-Text:   (11415 Views)
Extended Abstract
1. Objectives

Balancing disorder is one of the primary issues of the elderly that can affect the daily performance. Hitherto, more than 70 functional performance assessment tests have been developed [1-7]. These tests cause problems such as failure to recognize the exact effect of practice protocols, the researchers’ confusion in selecting the best test, and the lack of accurate identification of the risk of falling [4, 8]. Therefore, identifying the optimal method for assessing the functional balance in the elderly is the main priority of the researchers. Therefore, the present study examined all the tests and determined optimal based on the following: 1. Having protocols and standards for the creation of a test; 2. Having the appropriate reliability features; 3. Specifying the target population, which is the most important criteria in developing a test [2, 3, 5].
2. Methods and Materials
Electronic databases such as PubMed, Embase, Keynes, Magiran, IranMedex, and Iran Doc were selected for investigation from 1970 to April 2017 using the combination of manual search, references, and the following keywords: “Measuring or evaluating the results or measurement test,” “balancing or control of posture or sitting or standing,” “elderly or retired,” “fall or danger of falling or falling prediction or disturbance of balance.” These databases were selected as they were most reliable databases and easily accessible.
In the first stage, the title and abstracts of the descriptive studies were screened focusing on balance measurements, the elderly population, and publication language as Persian and English. The second stage was related to screening the whole text based on the following criteria: Index release (release of a balancing test), the stated goal of the balancing evaluation, determining the target population, having a protocol of developing standard test, having standard assessment criteria, and having at least one of the characteristics of validity and reliability while developing the test. Screening of the whole text was conducted by two researchers independently. The third phase combined the findings of the two researchers and removed the common items. The fourth stage was the selection of the valid tests according to the collected data.
The inclusion criteria included the stated objective of balancing assessment, assessing at least one attribute of validity and reliability, having protocols and standards for conducting the standard tests, specifying the target population in the case of elderly, English or Persian as the publication language. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Balancing assessment tests that were not related to the elderly and did not express any validity or reliability features. This review study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Guilan.
3. Results
The search using electronic resources retrieved 1087 titles. Additionally, 43 titles were obtained by manual search and reviewing the articles’ references. After excluding the duplicate titles, 754 abstracts were specified for review. After reviewing abstract articles, 679 articles were removed, and 75 articles were selected for the whole text study. After reviewing the entire text of the articles, 41 that published a functional balancing assessment test for the elderly were selected.
A total of 29 articles described the process of developing the test, 4 were on reliability, and 9 did not report the validity information. 31 articles did not report the information on the validity of developing process or reliability. Among the 10 articles that had the standard manufacturing process and reported reliability and validity, standing balancing standards at the University of Kansas, USA, had weak and moderate reliability, and therefore, did not have the necessary conditions for an appropriate test.
Among the 41 articles, the review of the construction of the functional balancing assessment test, 9 had the requirements for a standard test, which included the following: Berg Balance Scale (BBS), short BBS, Timed Up and Go test (TUG), Fullerton Advanced Balance scale (FAB), Balance Screening Test (BST), functional reach test, Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction in Balance (CTSIB), evaluating Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), and Functional Gait Assessments (FGAs).
4. Conclusion
The balance assessment systems [9] is one of the methods that several researchers employ to evaluate the power of the test in predicting the risk of falling. The use of functional equivalence assessment tests requires a prolonged duration and not specific equipment; it is easily placed within a clinical evaluation or treatment session, and the results are comprehensible to professionals and patients [10, 11].
Familiarity with the balance tests is essential for selecting the most appropriate test for clinical settings to prevent falling. The balanced performance assessments provide information about the subject’s ability to operate independently and are considered as screening tests in order to identify the subjects with the risk of falling. BBS, short BBS, TUG, FAB, BST, functional reach test, CTSIB, POMA, and FGA are the optimal items for clinical usage and prevention of falling. 
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

The Ethical Committee of the University of Guilan has approved this overview.
Funding
This article was extracted from the PhD dissertation of Pedram Pourmahmoudian at Department of Sports Pathology and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Guilan.
Conflict of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.
Acknowledgements
Hereby, We appreciate the authorities of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences of University of Guilan.
References
  1. Shumway Cook A, Woollacott MH. Motor control: Translating research into clinical practice. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. [PMCID]
  2. Hausdorff JM, Rios DA, Edelberg HK. Gait variability and fall risk in community-living older adults: A 1-year prospective study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2001; 82(8):1050–6. [DOI:10.1053/apmr.2001.24893]
  3. Alexander BH, Rivara FP, Wolf ME. The cost and frequency of hospitalization for fall-related injuries in older adults. American Journal of Public Health. 1992; 82(7):1020–3. [DOI:10.2105/AJPH.82.7.1020]
  4. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR. The epidemiology of falls and syncope. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 2002; 18(2):141–58. [DOI:10.1016/S0749-0690(02)00002-2]
  5. Dillon CF, Gu Q, Hoffman HJ, Ko CW. Vision, hearing, balance, and sensory impairment in Americans aged 70 years and over: United States, 1999-2006. NCHS data brief. 2010; 31:1-8. [DOI:10.1037/e665372010-001]
  6. Berg WP, Alessio HM, Mills EM, Tong C. Circumstances and consequences of falls in independent community-dwelling older adults. Age and Ageing. 1997; 26(4):261–8. [DOI:10.1093/ageing/26.4.261]
  7. Norasteh AA, Barati N, Rahnama N, Shahheidari S. The effect of neck muscles fatigue on dynamic balance control in athlete and non-athlete young females. Physical Treatments-Specific Physical Therapy Journal. 2013; 3(3):40-5.
  8. American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to physical therapist practice. Physical Therapy. 2001; 81(1):9-746. [PMID]
  9. Farahani R, Noraste AA, Helalat Z, Aghale A. Comparison of static and dynamic balance of health men, blind and deaf athletes with non-athletes. Physical Treatments-Specific Physical Therapy Journal. 2013; 3(1):24-38.
  10. Ahmadi R, Daneshmandi H. [The relationship between intelligent quotient with dynamic balance in intellectual disability children (Persian)]. Exceptional Education. 2015; 2(130):31-6.
  11. Horak FB. Clinical assessment of balance disorders. Gait & Posture. 1997; 6(1):76–84. [DOI:10.1016/S0966-6362(97)00018-0]
  12. Khoshandam R, Norasteh A, Rahmaninia F. [Investigating effect of fatigue on balance of athletes with flat foot (Persian)]. Physical Treatments-Specific Physical Therapy Journal.. 2013; 2(2):21-8.
  13. Hossein Hosseinimehr S, Daneshmandi H, Asghar Norasteh A. The effects of activity related fatigue on static and dynamic postural control in college athletes. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity. 2010; 4(2):148.
  14. Browne J, O’Hare N. Review of the different methods for assessing standing balance. Physiotherapy. 2001; 87(9):489–95. [DOI:10.1016/S0031-9406(05)60696-7]
  15. Tyson S, Connell L. How to measure balance in clinical practice. A systematic review of the psychometrics and clinical utility of measures of balance activity for neurological conditions. Clinical Rehabilitation. 2009; 23(9):824–40. [DOI:10.1177/0269215509335018]
  16. Mancini M, Horak FB. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2010; 46(2):239-48. [PMID] [PMCID]
  17. Sibley KM, Beauchamp MK, Van Ooteghem K, Straus SE, Jaglal SB. Using the systems framework for postural control to analyze the components of balance evaluated in standardized balance measures: A scoping review. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2015; 96(1):122–132.e29. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.06.021]
  18. Whitney SL, Poole JL, Cass SP. A review of balance instruments for older adults. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 1998; 52(8):666–71. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.52.8.666]
  19. Berg K. Balance and its measure in the elderly: a review. Physiotherapy Canada. 1989; 41(5):240–6. [DOI:10.3138/ptc.41.5.240]
  20. Hosseinimehr SH, Asghar NA. The role of leg and trunk muscles proprioception on static and dynamic postural control. Citius Altius Fortius. 2010; 26(1):83.
  21. Norasteh AA, Hosseini R, Daneshmandi H, Shah HS. Balance assessment in students with hyperkyphosis and hyperlordosis. Sport Medicine (Harakat). 2014; 6(1):57-71.
  22. Sibley KM, Straus SE, Inness EL, Salbach NM, Jaglal SB. Balance assessment practices and use of standardized balance measures among ontario physical therapists. Physical Therapy. 2011; 91(11):1583–91. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20110063]
  23. Ardolino EM, Hutchinson KJ, Pinto Zipp G, Clark M, Harkema SJ. The ABLE scale: The development and psychometric properties of an outcome measure for the spinal cord injury population. Physical Therapy. 2012; 92(8):1046–54. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20110257]
  24. Riemann BL, Guskiewicz KM, Shields EW. Relationship between clinical and forceplate measures of postural stability. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 1999; 8(2):71–82. [DOI:10.1123/jsr.8.2.71]
  25. Hunt TN, Ferrara MS, Bornstein RA, Baumgartner TA. The reliability of the modified balance error scoring system. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2009; 19(6):471–5. [DOI:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181c12c7b]
  26. Mackintosh S, Datson N, Fryer C. A balance screening tool for older people: Reliability and validity. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation. 2006; 13(12):558–61. [DOI:10.12968/ijtr.2006.13.12.22472]
  27. Lindmark B, Liljenäs Å, Hellström K. Assessment of minor or moderate balance disorders: A reliability study and comparison with healthy subjects. Advances in Physiotherapy. 2011; 14(1):3–9. [DOI:10.3109/14038196.2011.640350]
  28. Berg K. Measuring balance in the elderly: Preliminary development of an instrument. Physiotherapy Canada. 1989; 41(6):304–11. [DOI:10.3138/ptc.41.6.304]
  29. Hohtari-Kivimäki U, Salminen M, Vahlberg T, Kivelä S-L. Short Berg Balance Scale — correlation to static and dynamic balance and applicability among the aged. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2012; 24(1):42–6. [DOI:10.1007/BF03325353]
  30. Thomas M, Jankovic J, Suteerawattananon M, Wankadia S, Caroline KS, Vuong KD, et al. Clinical Gait and Balance Scale (GABS): Validation and utilization. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2004; 217(1):89–99. [DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2003.09.005]
  31. Shumway Cook A, Horak FB. Assessing the influence of sensory interaction on balance. Physical Therapy. 1986; 66(10):1548–50. [DOI:10.1093/ptj/66.10.1548]
  32. Desai A, Goodman V, Kapadia N, Shay BL, Szturm T. Relationship between dynamic balance measures and functional performance in community-dwelling elderly people. Physical Therapy. 2010; 90(5):748–60. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20090100]
  33. Shumway Cook A, Baldwin M, Polissar NL, Gruber W. Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults. Physical Therapy. 1997; 77(8):812–9. [DOI:10.1093/ptj/77.8.812]
  34. Wrisley DM, Marchetti GF, Kuharsky DK, Whitney SL. Reliability, internal consistency, and validity of data obtained with the functional gait assessment. Physical Therapy. 2004; 84(10):906-18. [PMID]
  35. Wrisley DM, Kumar NA. Functional gait assessment: Concurrent, discriminative, and predictive validity in community-dwelling older adults. Physical Therapy. 2010; 90(5):761–73. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20090069]
  36. Blomqvist S, Rehn B. Validity and reliability of the Dynamic One Leg Stance (DOLS) in people with vision loss. Advances in Physiotherapy. 2007; 9(3):129–35. [DOI:10.1080/14038190701395671]
  37. Di Fabio RP, Seay R. Use of the fast evaluation of mobility, balance, and fear in elderly community dwellers: Validity and reliability. Physical Therapy. 1997; 77(9):904–17. [DOI:10.1093/ptj/77.9.904]
  38. Whitney SL, Wrisley DM, Marchetti GF, Gee MA, Redfern MS, Furman JM. Clinical measurement of sit-to-stand performance in people with balance disorders: Validity of data for the Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test. Physical Therapy. 2005; 85(10):1034-45. [PMID]
  39. Rose DJ, Lucchese N, Wiersma LD. Development of a multidimensional balance scale for use with functionally independent older adults. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2006; 87(11):1478–85. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2006.07.263]
  40. Duncan PW, Weiner DK, Chandler J, Studenski S. Functional reach: A new clinical measure of balance. Journal of Gerontology. 1990; 45(6):M192–M197. [DOI:10.1093/geronj/45.6.M192]
  41. Newton RA. Validity of the multi-directional reach test: A practical measure for limits of stability in older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2001; 56(4):M248–M252. [DOI:10.1093/gerona/56.4.M248]
  42. Macknight C, Rockwood K. A Hierarchical assessment of balance and mobility. Age and Ageing. 1995; 24(2):126–30. [DOI:10.1093/ageing/24.2.126]
  43. Kluding P, Swafford BB, Cagle P, Gajewski BJ. Reliability, responsiveness, and validity of the kansas university standing balance scale. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy. 2006; 29(3):93–9. [DOI:10.1519/00139143-200612000-00003]
  44. Clark S, Rose DJ, Fujimoto K. Generalizability of the limits of stability test in the evaluation of dynamic balance among older adults. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1997; 78(10):1078–84. [DOI:10.1016/S0003-9993(97)90131-3]
  45. Lark SD, McCarthy PW, Rowe DA. Reliability of the parallel walk test for the elderly. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2011; 92(5):812–7. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2010.11.028]
  46. Tinetti ME. Performance-oriented assessment of mobility problems in elderly patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1986; 34(2):119–26. [DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1986.tb05480.x]
  47. Fox KM, Felsenthal G, Hebel JR, Itkin Zimmerman S, Magaziner J. A portable neuromuscular function assessment for studying recoveyr from hip fracture. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1996; 77(2):171–6. [DOI:10.1016/S0003-9993(96)90163-X]
  48. Wolfson LI, Whipple R, Amerman P, Kleinberg A. Stressing the postural response. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1986; 34(12):845–50. [DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1986.tb07256.x]
  49. Visser M, Marinus J, Bloem BR, Kisjes H, van den Berg BM, van Hilten JJ. Clinical tests for the evaluation of postural instability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2003; 84(11):1669–74. [DOI:10.1053/S0003-9993(03)00348-4]
  50. Jacobs JV, Horak FB, Tran K, Nutt JG. An alternative clinical postural stability test for patients with Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology. 2006; 253(11):1404–13. [DOI:10.1007/s00415-006-0224-x]
  51. Medell JL, Alexander NB. A clinical measure of maximal and rapid stepping in older women. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2000; 55(8):M429–M433. [DOI:10.1093/gerona/55.8.M429]
  52. Ford Smith CD, Wyman JF, Elswick RK, Fernandez T, Newton RA. Test-retest reliability of the sensory organization test in noninstitutionalized older adults. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1995; 76(1):77–81. [DOI:10.1016/S0003-9993(95)80047-6]
  53. Pang MY, Lam FM, Wong GH, Au IH, Chow DL.Balance performance in head-shake computerized dynamic posturography: Aging effects and test-retest reliability. Physical Therapy. 2011; 91(4):598. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20100221.cx]
  54. Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L, Glynn RJ, Berkman LF, Blazer DG, et al. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: Association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. Journal of Gerontology. 1994; 49(2):M85–M94. [DOI:10.1093/geronj/49.2.M85]
  55. Bohannon RW. Single limb stance times: A descriptive meta-analysis of data from individuals at least 60 years of age. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation. 2006; 22(1):70–7. [DOI:10.1097/00013614-200601000-00010]
  56. De Pasquale L, Toscano L. The spring scale test. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy. 2009; 32(4):159–67. [DOI:10.1519/00139143-200932040-00004]
  57. Teranishi T, Kondo I, Sonoda S, Kagaya H, Wada Y, Miyasaka H, et al. A discriminative measure for static postural control ability to prevent in-hospital falls: Reliability and validity of the Standing Test for Imbalance and Disequilibrium (SIDE). Japanese Journal of Comprehensive Rehabilitation Science. 2010; 1:11-6. [DOI:10.11336/jjcrs.1.11]
  58. Hile ES, Brach JS, Perera S, Wert DM, VanSwearingen JM, Studenski SA. Interpreting the need for initial support to perform tandem stance tests of balance. Physical Therapy. 2012; 92(10):1316–28. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20110283]
  59. Bruinsma JH, Gebraad MM, Brumels KA. Reliability of the time-on-ball test. Clinical Kinesiology: Journal of the American Kinesiotherapy Association. 2008; 62(1):1-4.
  60. Podsiadlo D, Richardson S. The timed “Up & Go”: A test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1991; 39(2):142–8. [DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1991.tb01616.x]
  61. Botolfsen P, Helbostad JL, Moe nilssen R, Wall JC. Reliability and concurrent validity of the Expanded Timed Up-and-Go test in older people with impaired mobility. Physiotherapy Research International. 2008; 13(2):94–106. [DOI:10.1002/pri.394]
  62. Simpson JM, Worsfold C, Reilly E, Nye N. A standard procedure for using TURN 180. Physiotherapy. 2002; 88(6):342–53. [DOI:10.1016/S0031-9406(05)60747-X]
  63. La Porta F, Franceschini M, Caselli S, Cavallini P, Susassi S, Tennant A. Unified balance scale: An activity-based, bed to community, and aetiology-independent measure of balance calibrated with Rasch analysis. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2011; 43(5):435–44. [DOI:10.2340/16501977-0797]
  64. Yamaji S, Demura S. Reliability and fall experience discrimination of cross step moving on four spots test in the elderly. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2013; 94(7):1312–9. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2012.12.021]
  65. Pearson M. Measuring clinical outcome in stroke (acute care). Royal College of Physicians; 2000.
  66. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JPA, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. PLoS Medicine. 2009; 6(7):e1000100. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100]
  67. Schlenstedt C, Brombacher S, Hartwigsen G, Weisser B, Möller B, Deuschl G. Comparing the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale With the Mini-BESTest and Berg Balance Scale to assess postural control in patients with parkinson disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2015; 96(2):218–25. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.09.002]
  68. Koosha M, Norasteh A. [Comparison of balance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without developmental coordination disorder (Persian)]. Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. 2013; 22(86):46-52.
  69. Alipour A, Daneshmandi H, Norasteh A. [Comparison of walking ability, lordosis and kyphosis angle in elderly athlete and non-athlete men (Persian)]. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2015; 25(123):126-36.
  70. Yelnik A, Bonan I. Clinical tools for assessing balance disorders. Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology. 2008; 38(6):439–45. [DOI:10.1016/j.neucli.2008.09.008]
  71. Hasanvand H, Bagheri Sabzevar A, Moradi H, Norasteh A. [Comparing the musculoskeletal profile of the elderly with and without history of falling (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2015; 10(3):72-81.
  72. Horak FB, Wrisley DM, Frank J. The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) to differentiate balance deficits. Physical Therapy. 2009; 89(5):484–98. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20080071]
  73. O’Hoski S, Winship B, Herridge L, Agha T, Brooks D, Beauchamp MK, et al. Increasing the clinical utility of the bestest, mini-bestest, and brief-bestest: Normative values in canadian adults who are healthy and aged 50 years or older. Physical Therapy. 2013; 94(3):334–42. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20130104]
  74. Marques A, Almeida S, Carvalho J, Cruz J, Oliveira A, Jácome C. Balance tests in healthy older people: Reliability, validity and ability to identify fall status of the BESTest, Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest in older people living in the community. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2016; 97(12):2166-73. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2016.07.011] [PMID]
  75. King MB, Judge JO, Wolfson L. Functional base of support decreases with age. Journal of Gerontology. 1994; 49(6):M258–M263. [DOI:10.1093/geronj/49.6.M258]
  76. Nashner LM. Adaptation of human movement to altered environments. Trends in Neurosciences. 1982; 5:358–61. [DOI:10.1016/0166-2236(82)90204-1]
  77. Pollock AS, Durward BR, Rowe PJ, Paul JP. What is balance? Clinical Rehabilitation. 2000; 14(4):402–6. [DOI:10.1191/0269215500cr342oa]
  78. Koohboomi M, Norasteh AA, Samami N. [Effect of Yoga training on physical fitness and balance in elderly females (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2015; 10(3):26-35.
  79. Hohtari-Kivimäki U, Salminen M, Vahlberg T, Kivelä S-L. Short berg balance scale, BBS-9, as a predictor of fall risk among the aged: A prospective 12-month follow-up study. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2013; 25(6):645–50. [DOI:10.1007/s40520-013-0159-x]
  80. Shumway-Cook A, Brauer S, Woollacott M. Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults using the Timed Up & Go Test. Physical Therapy. 2000; 80(9):896-903. [PMID]
  81. Whitney JC, Lord SR, Close JCT. Streamlining assessment and intervention in a falls clinic using the Timed Up and Go Test and Physiological Profile Assessments. Age and Ageing. 2005; 34(6):567–71. [DOI:10.1093/ageing/afi178]
  82. Berg K, Wood-Dauphinee S, Williams JI. The balance scale: Reliability assessment with elderly residents and patients with an acute stroke. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 1995; 27(1):27-36. [PMID]
  83. Topper AK, Maki BE, Holliday PJ. Are activity-based assessments of balance and gait in the elderly predictive of risk of falling and/or type of fall. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1993; 41(5):479–87. [DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1993.tb01881.x]
  84. Sterke CS, Huisman SL, van Beeck EF, Looman CWN, van der Cammen TJM. Is the Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) a feasible and valid predictor of short-term fall risk in nursing home residents with dementia. International Psychogeriatrics. 2009; 22(2):254. [DOI:10.1017/S1041610209991347]
  85. McGinnis PQ, Wainwright SF, Hack LM, Nixon Cave K, Michlovitz S. Use of a Delphi panel to establish consensus for recommended uses of selected balance assessment approaches. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. 2010; 26(6):358–73. [DOI:10.3109/09593980903219050]
  86. Salavati M, Negahban H, Mazaheri M, Soleimanifar M, Hadadi M, Sefiddashti L, et al. The Persian version of the Berg Balance Scale: inter and intra-rater reliability and construct validity in elderly adults. Disability and Rehabilitation. 2012; 34(20):1695–8. [DOI:10.3109/09638288.2012.660604]
  87. Azad A, Taghizadeh G, Khaneghini A. Assessments of the reliability of the Iranian version of the Berg Balance Scale in patients with multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2011; 20(1):22-8. [PMID]
  88. Sabet A, Azad A, Taghizadeh G. [Test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and internal consistency of the Persian version of Fullerton advanced balance scale in Iranian community-dwelling older adults (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2016; 10(4):18-29.
  89. Qutubuddin AA, Berg KO, Wood-Dauphinee SL, Williams JI, Maki B. Measuring balance in the elderly: Validation of an instrument. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1992; 83:S7-11. [PMID]
  90. Godi M, Franchignoni F, Caligari M, Giordano A, Turcato AM, Nardone A. Comparison of reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Mini-BESTest and Berg Balance Scale in patients with balance disorders. Physical Therapy. 2012; 93(2):158–67. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20120171]
  91. Pardasaney PK, Latham NK, Jette AM, Wagenaar RC, Ni P, Slavin MD, et al. Sensitivity to change and responsiveness of four balance measures for community-dwelling older adults. Physical Therapy. 2012; 92(3):388–97. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20100398]
  92. Hernandez D, Rose DJ. Predicting which older adults will or will not fall using the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2008; 89(12):2309–15. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2008.05.020]
  93.  Pegg PO, Cifu DX, Brown R, McNamee S, Carne W. Validating the Berg Balance Scale for patients with Parkinson’s disease: A key to rehabilitation evaluation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2005; 86(4):789–92. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.11.005]
  94. Leddy AL, Crowner BE, Earhart GM. Functional Gait Assessment and Balance evaluation system test: Reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity for identifying individuals with Parkinson disease who fall. Physical Therapy. 2011; 91(1):102–13. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20100113]
  95. Shumway Cook A, Baldwin M, Polissar NL, Gruber W. Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults. Physical Therapy. 1997; 77(8):812–9. [DOI:10.1093/ptj/77.8.812]
  96. Duncan PW, Studenski S, Chandler J, Prescott B. Functional reach: Predictive validity in a sample of elderly male veterans. Journal of Gerontology. 1992; 47(3):M93–M98. [DOI:10.1093/geronj/47.3.M93]
  97. Aslankhani MA, Farsi A, Abdoli B, Zamani Sani S, Fathi Rezaie Z. [Identification of elderly falling risk by balance tests under dual tasks conditions (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2010; 4(2).
  98. Nordin E, Lindelöf N, Rosendahl E, Jensen J, Lundin-Olsson L. Prognostic validity of the Timed Up-and-Go test, a modified Get-Up-and-Go test, staff's global judgement and fall history in evaluating fall risk in residential care facilities. Age and ageing. 2008; 37(4):442-8. [DOI:10.1093/ageing/afn101]
Type of Study: Research | Subject: gerontology
Received: 2017/10/14 | Accepted: 2017/03/12 | Published: 2018/06/22

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Ageing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb