Volume 14, Issue 4 (Winter 2020)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2020, 14(4): 392-405 | Back to browse issues page


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Razaghi S, Parsaei S, Saemi E. The Mediating Role of Physical Activity in The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with Psychological Well-Being in Elderly People. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2020; 14 (4) :392-405
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1413-en.html
1- Department of Sports Psychology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
2- Department of Sports Psychology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran. , e.saemi@scu.ac.ir
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Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

ith aging, many people experience a variety of physical and mental diseases and problems, as well as a decline in physical and mental strength [1]. Copying with aging and having successful old age does not only mean having no physical or debilitating illnesses, but also it refers to having good mental health, social activities and appropriate communication with others, as well as cognitive and motor abilities [2]. Studies have shown that regular physical activity is essential for maintaining physical and mental health at different stages of life, especially in the old age [3-6]. Despite extensive evidence of the benefits of exercise and physical activity, very few seniors perform in these activities [7]. Due to the undeniable importance of physical activity and psychological issues in the living conditions of the elderly people, and considering that physical activity is associated to some psychological variables such as emotional intelligence and psychological well-being, this study aimed to investigate the mediating role of physical activity in the relationship of Emotional Intelligence (EI) with Psychological Well-Being (PWB) of older adults.
2. Methods
This is a descriptive/correlational study. The study population consisted of all elderly people aged 60 years and above in Ahvaz, Iran. Research environment included sports clubs in different parts of the city, public and private sport complexes, parks, public and crowded areas. 120 samples with a mean age of 64.52±2.98 were selected from the study population using convenience and purposive sampling methods and voluntarily participated in the present study. They all signed a written informed consent form. Inclusion criteria were age over 60 years, the ability to understand and answer to the questions, full consciousness, and mental health. To collect data, a demographic form, Cyberia-Shrink’s EI test, Ryff’s PWB questionnaire and Craig’s International Questionnaires of Physical Activity were used. Prior to completing the questionnaires, participants were provided with information about the research and the questions. Collected data were analyzed in SPSS V. 21 and AMOS v.18 applications using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and statistical tests, including Shapiro-Wilk test for testing the normality of data distribution, Pearson correlation test to investigate the relationship between research variables, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Bootstrap test to determine the mediating role of physical activity. The significance level was set at P<0.05. 
3. Results
The mean scores of EI, physical activity, and PWB were reported 94.43±26.61, 43.26±9.31, and 68.48±11.99, respectively. In terms of PWB dimensions, their mean scores were 12.65±3.66 for autonomy; 12.38±2.06 for environmental mastery; 10.94±1.79 for personal growth; 11.11±3.09 for positive relations with others; 10.60±3.88 for purpose in life; and 11.57±1.75 for self-acceptance. There was a significant correlation between EI and physical activity (r= 0.70), between EI and PWB (r= 0.84) and between physical activity and PWB (r= 0.70) (p<0.01). To test the proposed model of the relationship between EI and PWB with physical activity mediation, SEM method was used. Proposed model fitness based on a combination of fit measures including chi-square (X2) was used to determine the goodness of fit of the proposed model with the data (Table 1). If the value of X2 is greater than 0, the model’s goodness-of-fit decreases. Its value shows a significant difference between the assumed and observed covariances. Many scholars consider the X2 value relative to its degree of freedom (normed fit index). Other goodness-of-fit indices are Adjusted Goodness-Of-Fit Index (AGFI), Incremental Fit Index (IFI), Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), and Comparative Fit Index (CFI). These indices are acceptable if their value be more than 0.9. Another index is Root-Mean-Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). It is acceptable if be less than 0.08. Table 1 presents the results of testing the goodness of fit of the proposed model. 
4. Conclusion
There was a positive and significant relationship between EI and PWB and physical activity had a mediating role. Therefore, encouraging elderly people to have physical activity can improve their emotional and mental health and help them have a healthy and comfortable old age. Having an active life enables the elderly to participate in social activities and interact with other people of all ages in addition to improving their mental health. Since only male participants were used in this study, and due to the relatively small number of participants and conducting the research in a specific geographic area, to generalize the study outcome, further studies are recommended in other cities of Iran and using a larger sample size including both male and female subjects.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines
Ethical considerations of research in assemblies containing the agency of companies established in the company and the research and investment freely available through it, the confidentiality and protection of the budget provided by the company. You can guide with the approval of the Research Committee of Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz.
Funding
This article is not one of these sponsors.
Authors' contributions
Conceptualization: Ismail Saemi; Collecting resources and analyzing: Sajjad Parsai and Sima Rasaghi; Current version: Sajjad Parsai and Sima Rasaghi; Modified and edited by: Ismail Saemi
Conflicts of interest
According to the authors, this article has no conflict of interest.
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2017/09/26 | Accepted: 2018/05/28 | Published: 2020/02/29

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