Volume 15, Issue 1 (Spring 2020)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2020, 15(1): 104-117 | Back to browse issues page

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Ebrahimi S, Laripour R, Ghyasi H, Ramshini M, Delbari A. Grascophobia Among Student of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2020; 15 (1) :104-117
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1678-en.html
1- Department of Counseling, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , reza_laripour@yahoo.com
3- Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
4- Department of Management and Health Information Technology, Faculty Of Economic and Accounting, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
5- Department of Aging, Aging Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. & Department of Neurobiology, University of Karolinska, Sweden.
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1. Introduction
he increase in the elderly population is such that it has been called the silent revolution [1]. According to the World Health Organization, when a country over the age of 60 reaches more than 7%, that country will be considered elderly [2]. According to the 2006 and 2011 censuses, Iran has become an elderly country with 7.2% and 8.2% of people over the age of 60, respectively. The aim of this study was to answer the question of whether there is a significant relationship between the source of control and behavioral activation/inhibition systems with general health in the elderly living in nursing homes in Dubai. To answer this question, the following hypotheses were proposed: 1. The source of internal and external control has a significant relationship with general health and its subscales in the elderly; 2. Behavioral Activation/Inhibition (BIS/BAS) systems have a significant relationship with general health and its subscales in the elderly.

2. Methods & Materials 
The present study was a cross-sectional descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population included all the elderly living in a nursing home in Dubai. There were 153 Iranian elderly people living in two centers in Dubai that provided 24-hour services and accommodation to the Iranian elderly, of which 100 elderly people were selected by stratified sampling method according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Participants completed the Rutter’s control source questionnaire [4], the Carver & White’s Behavioral Activation/Inhibition Systems Scales [5], and the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) [6]. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multivariate regression using SPSS software V. 21.
Inclusion criteria included expressing desire and submitting written consent to participate in the study, being over 65 years old, having literacy, not having psychological disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, according to the psychiatrist. Exclusion criteria included reluctance to participate in the study, illiteracy, and withdrawal. In this study, in order to observe ethical principles, participants were asked to complete the questionnaires of their own free will, and if they did not wish, there was no obligation for them. They were also told that these questionnaires were in line with the research and that their information would remain confidential. They were also told that they did not need to write their name when filling out the questionnaire.

3. Results
The Mean±SD of age of male and female participants were 62.10±11.08 and 61.12±10.76, respectively. Also, the M±SD of the scores of internal control source, external control source, behavioral activation system, behavioral inhibition system, and general health were 4.32±3.21, 5.51±3.98, 29.66±5.79, 8.45±5.83, 15.08±12.64 respectively. Demographic characteristics showed that 25% of the elderly had middle school education, 55% had a diploma and 20% had a bachelor’s degree or higher. Among the elderly, 68% were married and 32% were divorced. A total of 70% of the samples lived in a nursing home for less than 5 years, 16% for 5-10 years, and 14% for more than 10 years. Statistical assumptions such as normality of statistical data and independence of errors in regression were observed.
The results of examining the relationship between internal and external control source, behavioral activation system and its subscales, and behavioral inhibition system with general health and its subscales are shown in Table 1. The results of this study showed that the source of external control (r=0.50) and internal control (r=-0.48), and three subscales of behavioral activation system including hedonism subscale (r=-0.24), drive subscale (r=0.27), and reward subscale (r=-0.24), and behavioral inhibition system (r=0.38), had significant correlations with general health (P<0.01). Behavioral activator system and its subscales had a significant inverse relationship with depression (P<0.01, P<0.05). The source of internal and external control and behavioral inhibition system were significantly associated with all four subscales of general health including “depression”, “anxiety and insomnia”, “social dysfunction” and “physical symptoms” (P<0.01) (Table 1).


According to the results obtained from the study of these relationships, both research hypotheses were confirmed. General health prediction model based on control source and behavioral activation and inhibition systems showed that internal control source (Beta=0.59, t=4.26, P<0.001) (in reverse) and external control source (Beta=-0.39, t=-3.23, P<0.01), behavioral inhibition system (Beta=0.39, t=5.43, P<0.01), activation system subscale including drive (in reverse) (Beta=-24.2, t=-2.75, P<0.01) were able to significantly explain 36% of the variance of general health (R2=0.36, F=10.71). Also, the behavioral activation system and its subscales, including hedonism and reward, could not significantly predict general health.

4. Conclusion
Behavioral activation and inhibition systems and source of control are effective on the general health of the elderly. The more external the source of control, the less general health, and the more internal the source of control, the better the public health [7, 8]. Also, according to Gray’s theory of personality [9], it can be said that the elderly with behavioral inhibition system are likely to have less mental health, and the elderly in whom the behavioral activation system is more active have more hope, ecstasy and happiness and have a positive attitude towards stressors. They use an effective solution in dealing with the stressors, and as a result, their mental health is at a desirable level.
Therefore, the elderly with a source of external control and behavioral inhibition system are at greater risk for mental health problems, while the elderly with a behavioral activation system and a source of internal control have better mental health. Elderly people placed in nursing homes have less social and economic support and a greater need for care, thus putting their general health at risk. Strengthening the source of internal control and directing them to behavioral activities can help the elderly live their lives in high mental health.
This research faced limitations such as: 1. Cultural differences in the elderly might call into question the power of generalization to other societies; 2. This study was a cross-sectional study; 3. In this study, self-report scales were used; responding to self-report scales could be influenced by personal biases.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

All ethical principles are considered in this article. The participants were informed about the purpose of the research and its implementation stages; they were also assured about the confidentiality of their information; moreover, they were free to leave the study whenever they wished, and if desired, the research results would be available to them.
This research did not receive any grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or non-profit sectors. 
 Authors' contributions
Both authors contributed equally in preparing all parts of the research.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.
We sincerely appreciate the Managers and Instructors of the Dubai Elderly Centers who were helped us in this research. 

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: gerontology
Received: 2018/11/02 | Accepted: 2019/09/03 | Published: 2021/03/20

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