Volume 16, Issue 2 (Summer 2021)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2021, 16(2): 188-201 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


1- Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
2- Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
3- Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran. , soleimany.msn@gmail.com
Abstract:   (1629 Views)
Objectives: Social isolation can lead to depression, reduced life expectancy, and increased death anxiety among older adults. The present study aims to determine the predictors of social isolation in community-dwelling older adults residing in Qazvin, Iran.
Methods & Materials: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 301 older adults in 2019 who were selected using a cluster sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic/clinical checklist, Lubben Social Network Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index, and Pargament’s Religious Coping Questionnaire, which were completed through face to face interview. The collected data were analyzed using multivariable regression analysis. 
Results: The Mean±SD age of participants was 68.63±7.31 years. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the significant predictors of social isolation were social support (β=0.333, P<0.001), disability (β=-0.137, P=0.018), and living with spouse (β=0.154, P=0.010). The social isolation was reduced by increasing social support, decreasing disability, and living with spouse.
Conclusion: Given the role of social support and disability in predicting social isolation in the elderly, it seems that one of the effective factors in reducing social isolation especially in the disable older adults is establishing or strengthening supportive social networks.
Full-Text [PDF 5363 kb]   (908 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (201 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Social
Received: 2020/08/31 | Accepted: 2020/12/29 | Published: 2021/07/01

References
1. Sadri Damirchi E, Ghomi M, Esmaeli Ghazi Valoii F. Effectiveness of Life Review Group Therapy on Psychological Well-Being and the Life Expectancy of Elderly Women. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2017;12(3):312-25. [DOI:10.21859/sija.12.3.312]
2. Alipour F, Sajadi H, Forouzan A, Biglarian A. The role of social support in elderly quality of life. 2009.
3. Hojjati H, Akhonzadeh G, Hassanalipour S, Sharifnia S, Asayesh H. The effect of reminiscence on the amount of group self-esteem and life satisfaction of the elderly. The Journal of Urmia Nursing and Midwifery Faculty. 2011;9(5):350-6.
4. Hekmati pour NAT, N%A Hojjati, H%A Rabiee, SH. Evaluation of the Relationship between Social Support and Quality of Life in Elderly Patients with Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Nursing. 2015;3(1):42-50.
5. Sadat IE, Zohreh T. A Comparison of Older Adults' and Managers'Attitudes Towards Age -Friendly City Indexes Iranian Journa of lgeing 2018;13(2):236-49. [DOI:10.32598/sija.13.2.236]
6. Ghazi Mohseni M, Soleimanian AA, Heidarnia A. Examining the effectiveness of hope-based group training on the life quality of the elderly People. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2016;11(2):300-9. [DOI:10.21859/sija-1102300]
7. Bahrami F, Ramezani-Farani A. Religious orientation (internal and external) effects on aged mental health. Journal of Rehabilitation. 2005;6(1):42-7.
8. Heinrich LM, Gullone E. The clinical significance of loneliness: A literature review. Clinical psychology review. 2006;26(6):695-718. [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.04.002]
9. Foladian, Moghaddam MJ, editors. Social policy and the feeling of social isolation in Iranian society, the fourth national conference on social and cultural research in Iranian society2017.
10. Zhou G, Wang Y, Yu X. Direct and Indirect Effects of Family Functioning on Loneliness of Elderly Chinese Individuals. Current Psychology. 2018;37(1):295-301. [DOI:10.1007/s12144-016-9512-5]
11. Ejiri M, Kawai H, Fujiwara Y, Ihara K, Hirano H, Kojima M, et al. Predictors of social isolation among older people living in urban area: a prospective study. [Nihon koshu eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health. 2018;65(3):125-33.
12. Taylor HO, Taylor RJ, Nguyen AW, Chatters L. Social isolation, depression, and psychological distress among older adults. Journal of aging and health. 2018;30(2):229-46. [DOI:10.1177/0898264316673511]
13. Cotterell N, Buffel T, Phillipson C. Preventing social isolation in older people. Maturitas. 2018;113:80-4. [DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.04.014]
14. Valtorta NK, Kanaan M, Gilbody S, Ronzi S, Hanratty B. Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal observational studies. Heart. 2016;102(13):1009-16. [DOI:10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308790]
15. Matthews GA, Nieh EH, Vander Weele CM, Halbert SA, Pradhan RV, Yosafat AS, et al. Dorsal raphe dopamine neurons represent the experience of social isolation. Cell. 2016;164(4):617-31. [DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2015.12.040]
16. Kuiper JS, Zuidersma M, Voshaar RCO, Zuidema SU, van den Heuvel ER, Stolk RP, et al. Social relationships and risk of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies. Ageing research reviews. 2015;22:39-57. [DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2015.04.006]
17. Steptoe A, Shankar A, Demakakos P, Wardle J. Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2013;110(15):5797-801. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.1219686110]
18. Modarresi Yazdi F, Farahmand M, Afshani SA. A Study on Single Girls' Social Isolation and Its Effective Socio-Cultural Factors: A Study on Single Girls over 30 Years in Yazd. Social Problems of Iran. 2017;8(1):121-43.
19. Sadat EE, Hamid P, Rabab S, Ali AKA, Fatemeh E. Review study: Challenges of dialysis elderly with emphasis on aging syndromes. Elder. 2017;4(11):566-71. [DOI:10.21859/sija-1104566]
20. Victor CR, Scambler SJ, Bowling A, Bond J. The prevalence of, and risk factors for, loneliness in later life: a survey of older people in Great Britain. Ageing & Society. 2005;25(6):357-75. [DOI:10.1017/S0144686X04003332]
21. Savikko N, Routasalo P, Tilvis RS, Strandberg TE, Pitkälä KH. Predictors and subjective causes of loneliness in an aged population. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. 2005;41(3):223-33. [DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2005.03.002]
22. Victor C, Scambler S, Bond J, Bowling A. Being alone in later life: loneliness, social isolation and living alone. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology. 2000;10(4):407-17. [DOI:10.1017/S0959259800104101]
23. Umberson D, Karas Montez J. Social relationships and health: A flashpoint for health policy. Journal of health and social behavior. 2010;51(1_suppl):S54-S66. [DOI:10.1177/0022146510383501]
24. Visser MA, El Fakiri F. The prevalence and impact of risk factors for ethnic differences in loneliness. The European Journal of Public Health. 2016;26(6):977-83. [DOI:10.1093/eurpub/ckw115]
25. Platt L. Social activity, social isolation and ethnicity. The Sociological Review. 2009;57(4):670-702. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-954X.2009.01867.x]
26. Lubben J. Addressing social isolation as a potent killer! Public Policy & Aging Report. 2017;27(4):136-8. [DOI:10.1093/ppar/prx026]
27. Wang Y, Huang F, Zheng Y, Shi G, Wang L, Liao S. Study on the association between social isolation and cognitive function among elderly in Daqing city, Heilongjiang province. Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi= Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi. 2017;38(4):472-7.
28. Tomaka J, Thompson S, Palacios R. The relation of social isolation, loneliness, and social support to disease outcomes among the elderly. Journal of aging and health. 2006;18(3):359-84.29. Schutter N, Holwerda T, Stek M, Dekker J, Rhebergen D, Comijs H. Loneliness in older adults is associated with diminished cortisol output. Journal of psychosomatic research. 2017;95:19-25. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2017.02.002]
29. Lubben JE. Assessing social networks among elderly populations. Family & Community Health: The Journal of Health Promotion & Maintenance. 1988. [DOI:10.1097/00003727-198811000-00008]
30. Lubben J, Gironda M. Measuring social networks and assessing their benefits. Social networks and social exclusion: Sociological and policy perspectives. 2004:20-34.
31. Rahmani M, Ghasemi V, Hashemianfar A. Investigation of the effect of social relations on high-risk behaviors of adolescents of Bojnourd City, Iran. 2016.
32. Zimet GD, Dahlem NW, Zimet SG, Farley GK. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of personality assessment. 1988;52(1):30-41. [DOI:10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2]
33. Jowkar B. Psychometric properties of the short form of the social and emotional loneliness scale for adults (SELSA-S). International Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2012;5(4):311-7.
34. Carlozzi NE, Kratz AL, Downing NR, Goodnight S, Miner JA, Migliore N, et al. Validity of the 12-item World Health Organization disability assessment schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) in individuals with Huntington disease (HD). Quality of Life Research. 2015;24(8):1963-71. [DOI:10.1007/s11136-015-0930-x]
35. Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi M, Razi E, Sehat M. The relationship between socioeconomic status and trauma outcomes. Journal of Public Health. 2018;40(4):e431-e9. [DOI:10.1093/pubmed/fdy033]
36. Topp CW, Østergaard SD, Søndergaard S, Bech P. The WHO-5 Well-Being Index. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2015;84(3):167-76. [DOI:10.1159/000376585]
37. Dehshiri G, Mousavi S. An Investigation into Psychometric Properties of Persian Version of World Health Organization Five Well-being Index. 2016.
38. Pargament K, Feuille M, Burdzy D. The Brief RCOPE: Current psychometric status of a short measure of religious coping. Religions. 2011;2(1):51-76. [DOI:10.3390/rel2010051]
39. Pargament KI, Koenig HG, Perez LM. The many methods of religious coping: Development and initial validation of the RCOPE. Journal of clinical psychology. 2000;56(4):519-43. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(200004)56:4<519::AID-JCLP6>3.0.CO;2-1 [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(200004)56:43.0.CO;2-1]
40. Rajabi M, Saremi MM, Bayazi MH. The relationship between religious coping patterns,
41. mental health and happiness, Transformational Psychology (Iranian Psychologists). 2012.8(32):363-71
42. 42 Ibrahim R, Abolfathi Momtaz Y, Hamid TA. Social isolation in older M alaysians: prevalence and risk factors. Psychogeriatrics. 2013;13(2):71-9. [DOI:10.1111/psyg.12000]
43. Johnson JE, Waldo M, Johnson RG. Research considerations: stress and perceived health status in the rural elderly. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 1993;19(10):24-9. [DOI:10.3928/0098-9134-19931001-07]
44. Yahaya N, Abdullah SS, Momtaz YA, Hamid TA. Quality of life of older Malaysians living alone. Educational Gerontology. 2010;36(10-11):893-906. [DOI:10.1080/03601271003609009]
45. Seyfzadeh A, Hagighatian M, Mohajerani A. The Relationship Between Social Isolation and Health Among the Tehranian Elderly. Journal of Education and Community Health. 2017;4(3):19-25. [DOI:10.21859/jech.4.3.19]
46. Savikko N. Loneliness of older people and elements of an intervention for its alleviation. 2008.
47. A S, M H, A M. Economic, Social and Demographic Characteristics and Social Isolation in Senile People (Case Study: Tehran City). Journal of Disability Studies (Scientific-research). 2019;9:23-.
48. Kapadia F, Levy M, Griffin-Tomas M, Greene RE, Halkitis SN, Urbina A, et al. Perceived social support and mental health states in a clinic-based sample of older HIV positive adults. Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services. 2016;15(4):417-27. [DOI:10.1080/15381501.2016.1212295]
49. Gong G, Mao J. Health-related quality of life among Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the predictive roles of fatigue, functional disability, self-efficacy, and social support. Nursing research. 2016;65(1):55-67. [DOI:10.1097/NNR.0000000000000137]
50. Farhadi, Chqayy B, Mukhtarpour, karami, Khalil, Daraeizadeh. The role of social support, spiritual well-being and self-efficacy in predicting the mental well-being of the elderly. Psychology of Aging. 2015;1(2):35-48.
51. Fazlullah M, Hadi P, Sadat HRN. Feeling lonely in the elderly: the role of communication skills, social support and functional disability. Psychology of Aging. 2017;2(2):113-03.
52. Noei H, Sahaf R, Akbari Kamrani AA, Abolfathi Momtaz Y, Pourhadi S, Shati M. The Relationship Between Gender and Disability in the Elderly People in Tehran Municipality Pension Organization Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2017;12(1):6-17. [DOI:10.21859/sija-12016]
53. M HK, M A, M F, T SM, E H, S SBMM. Loneliness From the Perspectives of Elderly People: A Phenomenological Study. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2008;2(4):410-20.
54. N M, S R, M A. A Comparison of loneliness, mental health and self-efficacy of the elderly. journal of social psychology (new findings in psychology). 2012;7(22):73-81.
55. Jakobsson U, Hallberg IR. Loneliness, fear, and quality of life among elderly in Sweden: a gender perspective. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2005;17(6):494-501. [DOI:10.1007/BF03327417]
56. Hemmati Alamdarlou G, Dehshiri G, Shojaie S, Hakimi Rad E. Health and loneliness status of the elderly living in nursing homes versus those living with their families. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2008;3(2):557-64.
57. Murphy E. The prognosis of depression in old age. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1983;142(2):111-9. [DOI:10.1192/bjp.142.2.111]
58. James H, Brettell Caroline B. The Politics of International Migration. CB Brettell, JF Hollifield (éds) Migration theory-talking across disciplines, New York, London: Routledge. 2000:137-86.
59. Hemati R, A. RA. Studying the relationship between social support and mental health (case study: women in Khalkhal city),. Journal Of Specialized Social Science. 2014;11(42):106-19

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.