Volume 16, Issue 4 (Winter 2022)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2022, 16(4): 564-577 | Back to browse issues page


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Khazanin H, Daneshmandi H, Fakoor Rashid H. Effect of Selected Fall-proof Exercises on Fear of Falling and Quality of Life in the Elderly. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2022; 16 (4) :564-577
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-2174-en.html
1- Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. , hosseinkhazanin@gmail.com
2- Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
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1. Introduction
By entering the aging period, in addition to changes in cognitive function, as a result of the analysis of the central nervous system, there are immersive changes in peripheral, physical, and motor neural systems. In the elderly, the loss of balance, especially with age, is a permanent concern; hence, balance disorder is a strong risk factor for falls in the elderly. Falling is one of the most common and problematic issues in the elderly, which has become a significant health concern in the elderly, accompanied by fear, limitation of daily activities. Fear of falling can have adverse outcomes such as reduced workload in daily life, reduced physical activity, and lower quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of Selected Fallproof Exercises on fear of falling and the quality of life of the elderly.
2. Methods
This research was quasi-experimental research that was conducted in 2019. The statistical population of this study consisted of 53 elderly people in care centers in Rasht. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and the limitation of the subjects, 24 eligible individuals with an age range of 60-74 years were selected as the sample of the study and randomly divided into two experimental groups (66.41±4.48, n=12) and Controls (66.16±2.40, n=12) were included. Fallproof exercises included a set of multisensory exercises (visual, vestibular, somatosensory), the center of gravity control, posture strategies, and strength exercises that included walking on the toe and heel, opening and bending the knee, bringing the thigh closer, and moving the thigh away. 
The progress of the exercises varied according to the overload principle and the circumstances of the people. These exercises were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week, and each session lasted for 60 minutes. The International Form of Self-efficacy Fear (FES-I) and Lipad Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to assess the subjects in fear of falling and quality of life, respectively. Paired t-test was used to analyze the data within the group, and analysis of covariance was used to compare the differences between the groups. Statistical analysis of data was performed using SPSS software at a significant level (P<0.05). 
3. Results
After recording the data, descriptive statistics were used to analyze the collected information to describe the demographic characteristics of the people. In the first step, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used to investigate the type of data distribution. The Leven test was used for homogeneity of variance, which showed that the data were normal and the variance was homogeneous. After normal distribution of data using the Shapiro-Wilk test, paired t-test was used to analyze the differences within the group, and analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences between the groups. The statistical operation of the present study was performed by SPSS software v. 25 at a significant level (0.05).
The present study results showed that fear of falling P<0.001 “and quality of life P<0.010 significantly improved in the experimental group, while these scores did not show improvement in the control group.


4. Discussion
Therefore, the results of this study indicate that Selected Fallproof Exercises improved the fear of falls and the quality of life of the elderly. Due to the lack of improvement in fear of falling and the quality of life of the elderly in the control group, improvement in all indicators can be attributed to the effectiveness of these exercises. Due to the multidimensional effect of Fallproof exercises and the multifactorial risk of falls, these exercises can be used in home rehabilitation programs for the elderly, especially in nursing homes. One of the limitations of the present study is the small sample size. It is also suggested that the effectiveness of these exercises be examined in different periods as a follow-up effect.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

In this research, all the principles of research ethics were observed. Subjects could leave the study whenever they wished. The information of all participants was also kept confidential. This research was approved with the code IR.SSRI.REC.1398.583 due to the observance of ethical standards in the research of the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology by the Sports Research Ethics Committee of the Research Institute of Science.
Funding
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Authors' contributions
All authors equally contributed to preparing this article.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the officials of the Welfare Organization of Rasht, the managers of the care centers and the elderly who helped us in this research.
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Geriatric
Received: 2021/01/30 | Accepted: 2021/04/14 | Published: 2022/01/01

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