Volume 13, Issue 1 (4-2018)                   sija 2018, 13(1): 38-49 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Sadri Damirchi E, Behbuei S, Mojarrad A. Role of Performance in the Stroop Test in Anticipation of Anxiety and Aggression in the Elderly in Ardabil. sija. 2018; 13 (1) :38-49
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1419-en.html
1- PhD Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran. , araz_sadri@yahoo.com
2- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
3- Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
Abstract:   (297 Views)
Objectives Currently, the life expectancy of the elderly has been rising considerably. The present study investigated the role of strop function in the prediction of anxiety and fall self-efficacy  in elderly at the city of Ardabil.
Methods & Materials The study design was correlational. The population cohort consisted of all elderly males living in the elderly homes in Ardabil in2017. Among these, a sample of 200 subjects was selected by the available sampling method. The anxiety, fall self-efficacy, and Stroop questionnaires were used for data collection. The data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis.
Results A significant relationship was observed between anxiety/fall self-efficacy and Strop function. Stroop’s performance could negatively predict anxiety as well as predict the fall self-efficacy in the elderly.
Conclusion The performance of Stroop test in the elderly could be improved by training classes and various treatment groups that can indirectly decrease the amount of anxiety and increase the fall self-efficacy in the elderly.
Full-Text [PDF 4601 kb]   (112 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (98 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2017/09/05 | Accepted: 2018/01/03 | Published: 2018/04/01

1. Saydshohadai M, Heshmat S, Seidfatemi N, Haghani H, Mehrdad N. [The spiritual health of seniors living in sanitarium and home residents (Persian)]. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2013; 26(81):11-20
2. Lashkarboloki F, Aryaei M, Djazayery A, Eftekhar-Ardebily H, Minaei M. [Association ofdemographic, socio-economic features and some health problems with nutritional status in elderly (Persian)]. Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology. 2015; 9(4):27-34.
3. Hajiaziz A H, Bahmani B, Mahdi N, Manzari Tavakoli V, Barshan A. [Effectivness of group logotherapy on death anxiety and expectancy of elderly liv-ing in boarding houses in Kerman (Persian)]. Iranian Journal Ageing. 2017; 12(2):220-31.
4. Azadchehr M, Rahgozar M, Karimloo M, Adib Haj Bageri M. [To identify some factors effective on survival of the elderly living in nursing home using Copula Competing Risk Model: Bayesian approach (Persian)]. Journal of Health Promotion Management. 2014; 3(4):46-55
5. World Health Organization. Definition of an older or elderly person, health statistics & health information. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.
6. Ahrari S, Moshki M, Bahrami M. [The relationship between social support and adherence of dietary and fluids restrictions among hemodialysis patients in Iran]. Journal of Caring Sciences. 2014; 3(1):11-9. doi: 10.5681/jcs.2014.002
7. Gilasi H R, Sori H, Yazdani Sh, Taheri Tnjati P. [Methodological considerations in the elderly study: Case study (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Special Ep-idemiology. Iranian Journal of Epidemiology 2015; 11(2):1-12.
8. Feizabadi M, Nakhoda M, Delbari A. [Rresearch databases and geriatrics and gerontology journals: the comparison of databases and their covered journals (Persian)]. Salmand. 2016; 11(2):358-69. [DOI:10.21859/sija-1102358]
9. Rashidi Fakari F, Azimi Hashemi M, Rashidi Fakari F. A Qualitative research: Postmenopausal women's experiences of abuse. Procedia - Social and Be-havioral Sciences. 2013; 82:57–60. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.224 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.224]
10. Wijlhuizen GJ, de Jong R, Hopman-Rock M. Older persons afraid of falling reduce physical activity to prevent outdoor falls. Preventive Medicine. 2007; 44(3):260–4. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.11.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.11.003]
11. Khajavi D. [Validation and reliability of Persian version of fall efficacy scale-international (FES-I) in community-dwelling older adults (Persian)]. Salmand. 2013; 8(29):39-47.
12. Evitt C, Quigley P. Fear of falling in older adults: A guide to its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences. Rehabilitation Nursing. 2004; 29(6):207-10. PMID: 15597999 [PMID]
13. Sharaf A, Ibrahim H. Physical and psychosocial correlates of fear of falling among older adults in assisted living facilities. Journal of Gerontological Nurs-ing. 2008; 34(12):27-35. doi: 10.3928/00989134-20081201-07 [DOI:10.3928/00989134-20081201-07]
14. Arfken CL, Lach HW, Birge SJ, Miller JP. The prevalence and correlates of fear of falling in elderly persons living in the community. American Journal of Public Health. 1994; 84(4):565–70. doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.4.565 [DOI:10.2105/AJPH.84.4.565]
15. Zijlstra GAR, Van Haastregt JCM, Van Eijk JTM, Van Rossum E, Stalenhoef PA, Kempen GIJM. Prevalence and correlates of fear of falling, and associated avoidance of activity in the general population of community-living older people. Age and Ageing. 2007; 36(3):304–9. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afm021 [DOI:10.1093/ageing/afm021]
16. Tinetti ME, Richman D, Powell L. [Falls efficacy as a measure of fear of falling]. Journal of Gerontology. 1990; 45(6):P239–P243. doi: 10.1093/geronj/45.6.p239 [DOI:10.1093/geronj/45.6.P239]
17. Iranmanesh H, Arab Ameri A, Sheikh M, Iranmanesh H. [The effect of 2 types of dual-task training on the balance of older adults: Allocated attention abil-ity (Persian)]. Salmand. 2016; 11(1):30-43 [DOI:10.21859/sija-110130]
18. Hallford D. J, Nicholson G, Sanders K, McCabe M.P. The association between anxiety and falls: A meta-analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 2017; 72(5):729-41. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbv160 [DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbv160]
19. Wollesen B, Schulz S, Seydell L, Delbaere K. Does dual task training improve walking performance of older adults with concern of falling? BMC Geriat-rics. 2017; 17(1):213. doi: 10.1186/s12877-017-0610-5 [DOI:10.1186/s12877-017-0610-5]
20. Choi K, Jeon G-S, Cho S. Prospective study on the impact of fear of falling on functional decline among community dwelling elderly women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017; 14(5):469. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14050469 [DOI:10.3390/ijerph14050469]
21. Peach T, Pollock K, van der Wardt V, das Nair R, Logan P, Harwood RH. Attitudes of older people with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment and their relatives about falls risk and prevention: A qualitative study. Plos One. 2017; 12(5):e0177530. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177530 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0177530]
22. Barban F, Annicchiarico R, Melideo M, Federici A, Lombardi M, Giuli S, et al. Reducing fall risk with combined motor and cognitive training in elderly fallers. Brain Sciences. 2017; 7(2):19. doi: 10.3390/brainsci7020019 [DOI:10.3390/brainsci7020019]
23. Bar-Haim Y, Lamy D, Pergamin L, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH. Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin. 2007; 133(1):1–24. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.1 [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.1]
24. Williams JMG, Mathews A, MacLeod C. The emotional Stroop task and psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin. 1996; 120(1):3–24. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.120.1.3 [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.120.1.3]
25. Clark DA. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for OCD. New York: Guilford; 2007.
26. Koshan M, Vaghe'i S. [Psychiatric nursing (Persian)]. Tehran: Andishe-ye Rafi'; 2011
27. Sadock B, Sadock V, Ruiz P. Kaplan Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences. [M. Ganji, Persian Trans]. Tehran: Savalan; 2015.
28. Katzelnick DJ, Kobak KA, DeLeire T, Henk HJ, Greist JH, Davidson JRT, et al. Impact of generalized social anxiety disorder in managed care. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2001; 158(12):1999–2007. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.12.1999 [DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.12.1999]
29. Yiend J. The effects of emotion on attention: A review of attentional processing of emotional information. Cognition & Emotion. 2010; 24(1):3–47. doi: 10.1080/02699930903205698 [DOI:10.1080/02699930903205698]
30. Fox E, Russo R, Bowles R, Dutton K. Do threatening stimuli draw or hold visual attention in subclinical anxiety? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2001; 130(4):681–700. doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.130.4.681 [DOI:10.1037/0096-3445.130.4.681]
31. Berggren N, Derakshan N. Attentional control deficits in trait anxiety: Why you see them and why you don't. Biological Psychology. 2013; 92(3):440–6. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.03.007 [DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.03.007]
32. Sussman TJ, Jin J, Mohanty A. Top-down and bottom-up factors in threat-related perception and attention in anxiety. Biological Psychology. 2016; 121:160–72. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.08.006 [DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.08.006]
33. Renner KA, Valentiner DP, Holzman JB. Focus-of-attention behavioral experiment: an examination of a therapeutic procedure to reduce social anxiety. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. 2016; 46(1):60–74. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2016.1225814 [DOI:10.1080/16506073.2016.1225814]
34. Kertz SJ, Stevens KT, Klein KP. The association between attention control, anxiety, and depression: the indirect effects of repetitive negative thinking and mood recovery. Journal of Anxiety, Stress & Coping. 2017; 30(4):456-468. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2016.1260120 [DOI:10.1080/10615806.2016.1260120]
35. Shahamat DehSorkh F, Salehi Fadrdari J. [attentional bias in state and trait anxiety: A dot-probe study (Persian)]. Journal of Advanced Psychological Re-search. 2013; 8(29):183-194.
36. Curtin A. Prevention of falls in older adults. Medicine and Health. 2005; 88(1):22-5. PMID: 15779552
37. Mann R, Birks Y, Hall J, Torgerson D, Watt I. Exploring the relationship between fear of falling and neuroticism: a cross-sectional study in community-dwelling women over 70. Age and Ageing. 2005; 35(2):143–7. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afj013 [DOI:10.1093/ageing/afj013]
38. Rezaei Niyasr A, Zare H, Barjesteh F. [Assessment of cognitive eunction in obese & overweight children compared with children of normal weight in the Tower of London & Stroop test (Persian)]. Health Psychology. 2017; 6(2):35-50.
39. Basharpour S. [The study of information processing speed, automated and controlled processing, and the effect of antidepressants on these three variables in depression disorder (Persian)] [MSc. thesis]. Ardabil: University of Mohaghegh Ardabili; 2004.
40. Kaviani H, Mousavi AS. [Psychometric properties of the Persian version of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) (Persian)]. Tehran University Medical Journal. 2008; 66(2):136-140.
41. Yardley L, Beyer N, Hauer K, Kempen G, Piot-Ziegler C, Todd C. Development and initial validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). Age and Ageing. 2005; 34(6):614–9. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afi196 [DOI:10.1093/ageing/afi196]
42. Khajavi D, Farokhi A, Jaberi Moghadam AA, Kazemnejad A. [The impact of a training intervention program on fall-related psychological factors among male older adults in Arak (Persian)]. Salmand. 2014; 9(1):32-39.
43. Borhani Nezhad VR, Rashedi V, Tabe R, Delbari A, Ghasem zade H. [Relationship between fear of falling and physical activity in older adults (Persian)]. Medical Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. 2015; 58(8):446-52.
44. Richards A, French CC, Johnson W, Naparstek J, Williams J. Effects of mood manipulation and anxiety on performance of an emotional Stroop task. Brit-ish Journal of Psychology. 1992; 83(4):479–91. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02454.x [DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02454.x]
45. Becker ES, Rinck M, Margraf J, Roth WT. The emotional Stroop effect in anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2001; 15(3):147–59. doi: 10.1016/s0887-6185(01)00055-x [DOI:10.1016/S0887-6185(01)00055-X]
46. Egloff B, Hock M. Interactive effects of state anxiety and trait anxiety on emotional Stroop interference. Personality and Individual Differences. 2001; 31(6):875–82. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(00)00188-4 [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00188-4]
47. Eysenck MW, Derakshan N, Santos R, Calvo MG. Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory. Emotion. 2007; 7(2):336–53. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.7.2.336 [DOI:10.1037/1528-3542.7.2.336]
48. Kalanthroff E, Henik A, Derakshan N, Usher M. Anxiety, emotional distraction, and attentional control in the Stroop task. Emotion. 2016; 16(3):293–300. doi: 10.1037/emo0000129 [DOI:10.1037/emo0000129]
49. Du Rocher AR, Pickering AD. Trait anxiety, infrequent emotional conflict, and the emotional face Stroop task. Personality and Individual Differences. 2017; 111:157–62. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.02.017 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2017.02.017]
50. Williams JMG, Mathews A, MacLeod C. The emotional Stroop task and psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin. 1996; 120(1):3–24. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.120.1.3 [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.120.1.3]
51. Gorjian F, Abdollahi M H. [Comparison of executive functions and the cognitive estimation and interpretation bias in patients with social anxiety disorder and normal individuals (Persian)]. Journal of Cognitive Psychology. 2016; 4(3):41-50.
52. Payette MC, Bélanger C, Léveillé V, Grenier S. Fall-related psychological concerns and anxiety among community-dwelling older adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE. 2016; 11(4):e0152848. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152848 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0152848]
53. Payette MC, Bélanger C, Benyebdri F, Filiatrault J, Bherer L, Bertrand JA, et al. The association between generalized anxiety disorder, subthreshold anxiety symptoms and fear of falling among older adults: preliminary results from a pilot study. Clinical Gerontologist. 2017; 40(3):197–206. doi: 10.1080/07317115.2017.1296523 [DOI:10.1080/07317115.2017.1296523]
54. De Melker Worms JLA, Stins JF, van Wegen EEH, Loram ID, Beek PJ. Influence of focus of attention, reinvestment and fall history on elderly gait stability. Physiological Reports. 2017; 5(1):e13061.doi: 10.14814/phy2.13061 [DOI:10.14814/phy2.13061]
55. Hoang OTT, Jullamate P, Piphatvanitcha N, Rosenberg E. Factors related to fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2016; 26(1-2):68–76. doi: 10.1111/jocn.13337 [DOI:10.1111/jocn.13337]
56. Babapour M, Raheb G, Eglima M. [The relationship between social support and life satisfaction among elderly nursing home residents in Tehran (Persian)]. Salmand. 2014; 9(1):6-13.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
Write the security code in the box

Send email to the article author

© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Ageing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb