Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2016)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2016, 11(1): 142-151 | Back to browse issues page

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Heidari M, Ghodusi Borujeni M, Naseh L. Comparison of Self-Efficacy and Loneliness Between Community-Dwelling & Institutionalized Older People. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2016; 11 (1) :142-151
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-950-en.html
1- Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.
2- Young Researchers Club, Abadeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadeh, Iran. , mansureh.g2212@yahoo.com
3- Department of Adult Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Abstract:   (9120 Views)

Objectives: Today, aging has become a global phenomenon, and attention to its problems is a social necessity. In this age, self-efficacy is associated with psychological dimensions like loneliness. Considering healthy aging as a right for every human highlights the importance of aging phenomenon, prevention of older people problems, and finally presents a better caring service to this vulnerable group. Also, it made the promotion of self-efficacy level and psychological aspects of older people the purposes of health system authorities of the society. This research aimed to study self-efficacy and loneliness between the older people residing in nursing homes and those who live with their families in Shahrekord, Iran.
Methods & Materials: It was cross-sectional study. The samples comprised 100 women and men aged 60 years old and over. The study subjects were recruited by convenience sampling method. Data collection tools were 3-part questionnaire of Sherer self-efficacy and loneliness feeling questionnaire. For data analysis, we used independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Spearman correlation coefficient. The statistical analyses were conducted by SPSS version 16.
Results: The results showed that most participants in both groups were women (n=40, 80%). The mean(SD) age of the subjects living with their families was 75.58(8.22) years and for those living in nursing homes was 77.78(7.93) years. The mean (SD) score of self-efficacy in the elderly living with their families (51.76 [11.48]) was more than the elderly residing in nursing homes (48.44 [5.26]). Based on the results, self-efficacy had a significant association with employment status and satisfaction with family members (in older adults living with their families). In addition, significant associations were observed between self-efficacy and variables of age, residence place, and satisfaction with nursing home. There was also a significant relationship between loneliness and variables of educational level and satisfaction with nursing home. Our study showed that the degree of loneliness in the elderly people residing in nursing homes is higher (121.36 [11.01]) compared to the elderly living with their families (120.94 [24.25]). Moreover, there was a reverse and significant relationship between all dimensions of loneliness with self-efficacy in older adults living with their families (P=0.001).
Conclusion: With regard to the low mean score of self-efficacy of older adults residing in nursing homes, the authorities of nursing homes should pay attention to the needs of older adults and provide general education about promoting the tradition of caring older people by their families. Furthermore, all institutions and organizations that have important goals such as healthy older adults should advance toward their goals by planning, education, and consultation with families that care about their older adults. Finally, with regard to the results about the association of self-efficacy with loneliness, self-efficacy assessment should be considered one of the effective factors in psychological dimensions of the people and a way to support the self-care of older adults because promoting self-efficacy will result in managing stress and improving the mental health. 

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: gerontology
Received: 2015/10/08 | Accepted: 2016/01/28 | Published: 2017/06/22

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