Volume 12, Issue 3 (12-2017)                   sija 2017, 12(3): 384-393 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Seyedjafari E, Sahebozamani M, Ebrahimipour E. Effect of Eight Weeks of Water Exercises on Deep Part of the Pool on the Static Balance of the Elderly Man. sija. 2017; 12 (3) :384-393
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1305-en.html
1- Department of Sport Injury, Faculty of Physical Education, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
2- Department of Biomechanics, Faculty of Physical Education, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. , ehsan94324001@gmail.com
Abstract:   (2479 Views)

Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of deep aquatic exercises on balance among elderly men. 
Methods & Materials Thirty elderly men voluntarily participated in this experiment. Subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups including experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in a deep aquatic exercise program that consisted of 60-minutes sessions three times a week for eight weeks, while the control group was not into any exercise. Postural stability (static balance) was assessed before and after the program as pre-test and post-test by Biodex Balance System (BBS) respectively. Independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test (P≤0.05) were performed on outcome variables.
Results The results of the comparison between the two groups of 15 individuals in terms of demographic and anthropometric features[experimental group with mean age of (65.50±3.481), height (168.10±5.215), weight (70.865±7.775) and body mass index (24.781±2.483) and the control group with an average age of (66.50±3.232), height (169.20±6.314), weight (71.322±8.531) and body mass index (24.982±3.535) were divided], the two groups showed no difference in results is homogeneity. The findings of the study showed that aquatic exercises program has significant effect on the static balance (P≤0.05). The results indicated significant differences between the subjects of experimental and control groups after the exercise program, and also paired sample t-test showed significant differences between pre and post-tests in experimental group while no differences observed in control group. 
Conclusion According to this study, doing the deep-aquatic exercises is effective on improving the static balance of old people and reducing their risk of falling. 

Full-Text [PDF 4421 kb]   (1187 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (1341 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Physical Medicine
Received: 2017/03/17 | Accepted: 2017/06/24 | Published: 2017/10/07

1. Goudarz M, Foroughan M, Makarem A, Rashedi V. [Relationship between social support and subjective well-being in older adults (Persian)]. Salmand. 2015; 10(3) :110-9.
2. Bernier JN, Perrin DH. Effect of coordination training on proprioception of the functionally unstable ankle. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Ther-apy. 1998; 27(4):264–75. doi: 10.2519/jospt.1998.27.4.264 [DOI:10.2519/jospt.1998.27.4.264]
3. Beissner KL, Collins JE, Holmes H. Muscle force and range of motion as predictors of function in older adults. Physical Therapy. 2000; 80(6):556-63. doi: 10.1093/ptj/80.6.556 [DOI:10.1093/ptj/80.6.556]
4. Khosravi J, Hashemi Nazari SS, Nazerian N, Bateni P. [Assessment of health status among elderly public service workers of Tehran Municipality from 2002 to 2005 (Persian)]. Hakim Research Journal. 2007; 2(5):62-9.
5. MacCulloch PA, Gardner T, Bonner A. Comprehensive fall prevention programs across settings: A review of the literature. Geriatric Nursing. 2007; 28(5):306–11. doi: 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2007.03.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.gerinurse.2007.03.001]
6. Heyn P, Abreu BC, Ottenbacher KJ. The effects of exercise training on elderly persons with cognitive impairment and dementia. Archives of Physical Medi-cine and Rehabilitation. 2004; 85(10):1694–704. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2004.03.019 [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.03.019]
7. Nickens H. Intrinsic factors in falling among the elderly. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1985; 145(6):1089–93. doi: 10.1001/archinte.145.6.1089 [DOI:10.1001/archinte.145.6.1089]
8. Winter DA. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2009. doi: 10.1002/9780470549148 [DOI:10.1002/9780470549148]
9. Lord SR, Matters B, St George R, Thomas M, Bindon J, Chan DK, et al. The effects of water exercise on physical functioning in older people. Australasian Journal on Ageing. 2006; 25(1):36–41. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-6612.2006.00138.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1741-6612.2006.00138.x]
10. Nagy E, Feher-Kiss A, Barnai M, Domján-Preszner A, Angyan L, Horvath G. Postural control in elderly subjects participating in balance training. Europe-an Journal of Applied Physiology. 2007; 100(1):97–104. doi: 10.1007/s00421-007-0407-x [DOI:10.1007/s00421-007-0407-x]
11. Cadore EL, Rodríguez-Ma-as L, Sinclair A, Izquierdo M. Effects of different exercise interventions on risk of falls, gait ability, and balance in physically frail older adults: A systematic review. Rejuvenation Research. 2013; 16(2):105–14. doi: 10.1089/rej.2012.1397 [DOI:10.1089/rej.2012.1397]
12. Mattos F de, Leite N, Pitta A, Bento PCB. Effects of aquatic exercise on muscle strength and functional performance of individuals with osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition). 2016; 56(6):530–42. doi: 10.1016/j.rbre.2016.09.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.rbre.2016.09.003]
13. Hauer K, Rost B, Ratschle K, Opitz H, Specht N, Bartsch P, et al. Exercise training for rehabilitation and secondary prevention of falls in geriatric patients with a history of injurious falls. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2001; 49(1):10–20. doi: 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49004.x [DOI:10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49004.x]
14. Batterham SI, Heywood S, Keating JL. Systematic review and meta-analysis comparing land and aquatic exercise for people with hip or knee arthritis on function, mobility and other health outcomes. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2011; 12(1). doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-12-123 [DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-12-123]
15. Aquatic Exercise Association. Aquatic fitness professional manual. United States: Human Kinetics; 2010.
16. Lambeck J. Training pools: The importance of the right depth. Netherlands: EWAC Medical; 2000. [PMID]
17. Broman G, Quintana M, Lindberg T, Jansson E, Kaijser L. High intensity deep water training can improve aerobic power in elderly women. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2006; 98(2):117–23. doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0237-2 [DOI:10.1007/s00421-006-0237-2]
18. Kanitz AC, Delevatti RS, Reichert T, Liedtke GV, Ferrari R, Almada BP, et al. Effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and mus-cular strength responses in older adults. Experimental Gerontology. 2015; 64:55–61. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2015.02.013 [DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2015.02.013]
19. Douris P, Southard V, Varga C, Schauss W, Gennaro C, Reiss A. The effect of land and aquatic exercise on balance scores in older adults. Journal of Geri-atric Physical Therapy. 2003; 26(1):3–6. doi: 10.1519/00139143-200304000-00001 [DOI:10.1519/00139143-200304000-00001]
20. Barbosa TM, Garrido MF, Bragada J. Physiological adaptations to head-out aquatic exercises with different levels of body immersion. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2007; 21(4):1255-59. doi: 10.1519/00124278-200711000-00047 [DOI:10.1519/00124278-200711000-00047]
21. Bellew JW, Yates JW, Gater DR. The initial effects of low-volume strength training on balance in untrained older men and women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2003; 17(1):121–8. doi: 10.1519/00124278-200302000-00020 [DOI:10.1519/00124278-200302000-00020]
22. Taheri M. Effect of hydrotherapy on lower body strength and balance among elderly women. Journal of Physical Education Research. 2015; 2(4):19-26.
23. Duncan PW, Weiner DK, Chandler J, Studenski S. Functional reach: A new clinical measure of balance. Journal of Gerontology. 1990; 45(6):192–7. doi: 10.1093/geronj/45.6.m192 [DOI:10.1093/geronj/45.6.M192]
24. Sadeghi H, Alirezaei F. [The effect of water exercise program on static and dynamic balance in elderly women (Persian). Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2008; 2(4):402-9.
25. Era P, Heikkinen E. Postural sway during standing and unexpected disturbance of balance in random samples of men of different ages. Journal of Geron-tology. 1985; 40(3):287–95. doi: 10.1093/geronj/40.3.287 [DOI:10.1093/geronj/40.3.287]
26. Simmons V, Hansen PD. Effectiveness of water exercise on postural mobility in the well elderly: An experimental study on balance enhancement. The Jour-nals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Science. 1996; 51A(5):233–8. doi: 10.1093/gerona/51a.5.m233 [DOI:10.1093/gerona/51A.5.M233]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Ageing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb