Volume 12, Issue 3 (12-2017)                   sija 2017, 12(3): 326-345 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Orang S, Hashemi Razini H, Abdollahi M H. Relationship Between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Meaning of Life and Psychological Well-Being of the Elderly. sija. 2017; 12 (3) :326-345
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1320-en.html
1- Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, International Campus, Kharazmi Univarsity, Tehran, Iran. , orang.soheila@gmail.com
2- Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, International Campus, Kharazmi Univarsity, Tehran, Iran. 2. Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi Univarsity, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (2680 Views)

Objectives The present study aimed to examine the relationship between early maladaptive schemas with meaning of life and well-being of the elderly and investigation and its prediction by early maladaptive schemas.
Methods & Materials In this research, a total of 200 older people (96 women and 104 men) were selected from Tehran city by convenience sampling. The instruments used in this study consisted of the Yung early maladaptive Schema Questionnaire – Short Form (SQ-SF), Meaning of Life Questionnaire (MLQ) and Ryffs Scales of Psychological Well-Being (RSPWB).
Results The results of multiple regression analyses showed that 37% of the elderly participants found meaning, 27% found meaning in life, 27% in self- acceptance, 24% in positive relationship with the others, and 44% in environment control, as predicted by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas cannot project autonomy, personal growth and purpose in life. This correlation was significant (P<0.001). Based on the analyses of variance, the regression method was also significant and linear because the value of F test for determining the effect of independent variables on finding meaning and meaning in life, i.e., 5.21 and 3.22, respectively, was significant (P<0.001). Also, the effect of independent variables on well-being and self-acceptance (f=3.22) showed a positive relationship with others (f=2.68) and environment control (f=2.17), which was significant (P<0.001) .
Conclusion Findings of this research revealed that early maladaptive schemas (unrelenting standards, self-sacrifice, subjugation, emotional deprivation, social isolation, and failure) have predictive power for meaning of life and well-being, which may affect the mental health of the elderly.

Full-Text [PDF 7649 kb]   (1772 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (2481 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2017/04/25 | Accepted: 2017/08/03 | Published: 2017/08/23

1. Orang S, Khanahmadi M. [Ethical Issues in Aging (Persian)]. Journal of Ethics in science and technology. 2017; 11(4):1-6.
2. Amirsadri A, Soleimani H. [The study of aging and its consequences in Iran (Persian)]. Journal of Health. 2005; 1(2): 19-35.
3. Atwal A, McIntyre A. Occuptional therapy and older people [M. Shaterian, M. Hoseini Persian trans.]. Tehran: Danzheh; 2011.
4. Mohammdpour A. [The founder of logotherapy (A Review on Existential psychology and psychotherapy) (Persian)]. Tehran: Danjheh: 2010.
5. Frankl VE. The will to meaning: Foundations and applications of logotherapy [M. Milani Persian trans.]. Tehran: Dorsa; 2014.
6. Steger MF, Mann JR, Michels P, Cooper TC. Meaning in life, anxiety, depression, and general health among smoking cessation patients. Journal of Psycho-somatic Research. 2009; 67(4):353–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.02.006 [DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.02.006]
7. Rathi N, Rastogi R. Meaning in life and psychological well-being in pre-adolescents and adolescents. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psycholo-gy. 2007; 33(1):31-8.
8. Kang KA, Im JI, Kim HS, Kim SJ, Song MK, Sim S. The effect of logotherapy on the suffering, finding meaning, and spiritual well-being of adolescents with terminal cancer. Journal of Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing. 2009; 15(2):136-44. doi: 10.4094/jkachn.2009.15.2.136 [DOI:10.4094/jkachn.2009.15.2.136]
9. Doğan T, Sapmaz F, Tel FD, Sapmaz S, Temizel S. Meaning in life and subjective well-being among Turkish university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2012; 55:612–7. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.543 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.543]
10. Young JE. Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach [A. Sahebi, H. Hamidpour Persian trans]. Tehran: Arjmand; 2016.
11. Young JE, Klosko JS, Weishaar ME. Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide [H. Hamidpour, Z. Andooz Persian trans]. Tehran: Arjmand; 1998.
12. Eshtehad A. [Investigation of group therapy on well-being of university students (Persian)] [MSc. thesis]. Tehran: Tehran Psychiatric Institute; 2009.
13. Moradi M, Akbari T, Dausti M. Relation between early maladaptive schemas and self differentiation in referrals to welfare centers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015; 185:294–300. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.432 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.432]
14. Bayani AA, Kochaki M, Bayani A. [Ryff scales of psychological well-being (Persian)]. Clinical Psychology Journal. 2008; 2:146-151.
15. Shao J, Shen J, Zhang Q, Lin T. Meaning in life and well-being of older stroke survivors in Chinese communities: Mediating effects of mastery and self-esteem. Health. 2013; 5(4):743–8. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.54098 [DOI:10.4236/health.2013.54098]
16. Breitbart W, Gibson C, Poppito SR, Berg A. Psychotherapeutic interventions at the end of life: A focus on meaning and spirituality. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2004; 49(6):366-72. doi: 10.1177/070674370404900605 [DOI:10.1177/070674370404900605]
17. Bahrami E, Bahramizadeh H. [Early maladaptive schemas and agreeableness in personality five factor model (Persian)]. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2011; 30:547–51. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.107 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.107]
18. Francis LJ, Gibson HM, Robbins M. God images and self-worth among adolescents in Scotland. Mental Health, Religion & Culture. 2001; 4(2):103–8. doi: 10.1080/13674670126955 [DOI:10.1080/13674670126955]
19. Kleftaras G, Psarra E. Meaning in life, psychological well-being and depressive symptomatology: A comparative study. Psychology. 2012; 3(4):337–45. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.34048 [DOI:10.4236/psych.2012.34048]
20. Bidadian M, Bahramizadeh H, Poursharifi H. [Obesity and quality of life: The role of early maladaptive schemas (Persian)]. Procedia - Social and Behav-ioral Sciences. 2011; 30:993–8. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.193 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.193]
21. Marco JH, Garcia-Alandete J, Pérez S, Guillen V, Jorquera M, Espallargas P, et al. Meaning in life and non-suicidal self-injury: A follow-up study with participants with Borderline Personality Disorder. Psychiatry Research. 2015; 230(2):561–6. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.10.004 [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.10.004]
22. Fujita F, Diener E, Sandvik E. Gender differences in negative affect and well-being: The case for emotional intensity. Journal of Personality and Social Psy-chology. 1991; 61(3):427–34. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.61.3.427 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.61.3.427]
23. Turner JB, Kaplan HB. Psychosocial stress: Perspectives on structure, theory, life-course, and methods. Contemporary Sociology. 1997; 26(6):780. doi: 10.2307/2654685 [DOI:10.2307/2654685]
24. Hetts JJ. Self-evaluations under fire: Implicit self-regard and explicit self-esteem in the face of failure [PhD dissertation]. Los Angeles: University of Califor-nia; 2000.
25. Johnson JG, Metalsky GI, Rabkin JG, Williams JBW, Remien RH. Attributional style, self steem and human: A test of the hopelessness and self stee m theo-ries of depression. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Assessment. 2000; 22(1):23-46. [DOI:10.1023/A:1007572414279]
26. Wickline V. Ethnic differences in the self-esteem-academic achievement relationship: A meta-analysis. PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi: 10.1037/e353522004-001 [DOI:10.1037/e353522004-001]
27. McInnis GJ, White JH. A phenomenological exploration of loneliness in the older adult. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. 2001; 15(3):128–39. doi: 10.1053/apnu.2001.23751 [DOI:10.1053/apnu.2001.23751]
28. George LK. Still happy after all these years: Research frontiers on subjective well-being in later life. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sci-ences and Social Sciences. 2010; 65(3):331–9. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbq006 [DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbq006]
29. Rajabi A, Kazemian S, Smaeeili M. [Prediction of perceived rejection based on early maladaptive schema at active and inactive elderly (Persian)]. Journal of Geriatric Nursing. 2015; 2(2): 71-83.
30. Sheffield A, Waller G, Emanuelli F, Murray J, Meyer C. Links between parenting and core beliefs: Preliminary psychometric validation of the young parent-ing inventory. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2005; 29(6):787–802. doi: 10.1007/s10608-005-4291-6 [DOI:10.1007/s10608-005-4291-6]
31. Woolhead G. Dignity in older age: What do older people in the United Kingdom think. Age and Ageing. 2004; 33(2):165–70. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afh045 [DOI:10.1093/ageing/afh045]
32. Backman K, Hentinen M. Model for the self-care of home-dwelling elderly. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1999; 30(3):564–72. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.1999.01125.x [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1999.01125.x]
33. Thimm JC. Personality and early maladaptive schemas: A five-factor model perspective. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 2010; 41(4):373–80. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2010.03.009 [DOI:10.1016/j.jbtep.2010.03.009]
34. Yoosefi N. [Comparison of the effectiveness of family therapy based on schema therapy and bowens emotional system therapy on the early maladaptive schema among divorce applicant clients (Persian)]. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health. 2012; 13(4),356-73.
35. Zerehpoosh A, Neshatdoust HT, Asgari K, Abedi MR, Sadeghi HA. [The effect of schema therapy on chronic depression in students (Persian)]. Journal of Research Behavioral Sciences. 2012; 10(4):285-91.
36. Rijkeboer MM, de Boo GM. Early maladaptive schemas in children: Development and validation of the schema inventory for children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 2010; 41(2):102–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2009.11.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.jbtep.2009.11.001]
37. Tov W. The well-being of nations: Linking together trust, cooperation, and democracy. In E. Diener (Ed.), The science of well-being. Netherlands: Springer; 2009. [DOI:10.1007/978-90-481-2350-6_7]
38. Roelofs J, Onckels L, Muris P. Attachment quality and psychopathological symptoms in clinically referred adolescents: The mediating role of early mala-daptive schema. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2012; 22(3):377–85. doi: 10.1007/s10826-012-9589-x [DOI:10.1007/s10826-012-9589-x]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Ageing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb