Volume 13, Issue 4 (Winter 2019)                   sija 2019, 13(4): 480-493 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hosseinizadeh N S, Abdollahi M H, Shahgholian M. Executive Functioning and Creative Thinking in Bilinguals and Monolinguals Aged 60-80 Years Living in Tehran, Iran. sija. 2019; 13 (4) :480-493
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1421-en.html
1- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran. , nobility333@yahoo.com
2- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (621 Views)
Objectives The present study compared executive functions and creative thinking in older monolingual and bilingual adults.
Methods & Materials This was a descriptive study with a causal-comparative design. Study population consisted of all elderly people enjoying parks in Tehran City, Iran to spend their leisure time. Of whom, 100 elderlies, including 50 monolinguals (Persian), and 50 bilinguals (Azeri-Persian) aged 60-80 years were selected using convenience sampling method and based on the inclusion criteria. The subjects were fully conscious, able to answer the questions, and accessible. The data collection tools were digit span memory test, Wechsler adult intelligence scale, D2 test of attention, continuous performance test, and Torrance tests of creative thinking. For analyzing the obtained data, multivariate analysis of variance and pairwise comparison tests were used.
Results There was a significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in terms of forward span memory, backward span memory, and total working memory. Also, bilinguals reported a higher performance in the dimensions of selective attention and the dimensions of cognitive inhibition.
Conclusion Bilingualism can improve cognitive function in the elderly. It is suggested that in future studies, while assessing the effect of bilingualism on the prevention of dementia, people be encouraged to learn a second language.
Full-Text [PDF 2779 kb]   (278 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (102 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2018/05/09 | Accepted: 2018/11/03 | Published: 2019/01/01

References
1. Whiteman H. Bilingualism may protect cognitive function fol- lowing stroke [Internet]. 2015 [Updated 2015 November 20]. Available from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/arti- cles/302787.php
2. Foroughian M, Hosseini MA, Rashedi V, Rezaei M, Lotfi G. [Comparison of cognitive function of bilingual and monolingual elderly (Persian)]. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 18(10):609-7.
3. Arbabi S, Sharifi Sh, Mashhadi A. [The effect of bilingualism on knowledge: Azeri-Persian bilingual study (Persian)]. Foreign Language Research Journal. 2014; 3(1):1-18.
4. Maerofi Y, Mohammadnia I. [Bilingualism and its relationship with critical thinking skills (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Educa- tional Innovations. 2013; 45(12):60-45.
5. Wisie M. Comparison of personality traits and inhibition/be- havioral activation systems in bilingual and one-language sub- jects [MSc. thesis]. Tabriz: Tabriz University; 2009.
6. Naziization N. [Comparison of academic achievement of bilin- gual students and primary elementary students in Saravan (Per- sian)] [MSc. Thesis]. Saravan: Payam-e Noor University, Saravan Branch; 2010.
7. Vaezi Sh, Zolfaghari Ardchi F, Rahimi I. [Mental processing in bilingual and monolingual children (Persian)]. Journal of Thought and Child. 2012; 3(1):119-34.
8. Baker C. Foundation of bilingual education and bilingualism. Yarmouth: Multilingual Matters; 2001.
9. Mohammadzadeghan, R. Comparison of executive functions and difficulties in emotional regulation in addicts with high and low borderline personality traits. The International Journal of In- dian Psychology. 2016; 3(1):124-35.
10. Salthouse TA, Atkinson TM, Berish DE. Executive functioning as a potential mediator of age-related cognitive decline in normal adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2003; 132(4):566-94. [DOI:10.1037/0096-3445.132.4.566] [PMID] [DOI:10.1037/0096-3445.132.4.566]
11. Bialystok E, Craik FI, Klein R, Viswanathan M. Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon task. Psychology and Aging. 2004; 19(2):290-303. [DOI:10.1037/0882-7974.19.2.290] [PMID] [DOI:10.1037/0882-7974.19.2.290]
12. Herfeh Dost M, Yazdanpanah MA, Sirihi N, Khizjou I. [Bilin- gual role in creative thinking and creative performance (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Analytical-Cognitive Psychology. 2014; 5(20):57-45.
13. Saif AA. [New psychology: Psychology of learning and educa-tion (Persian)]. Tehran: Doran; 2011.
14. Gollan TH, Montoya RI, Werner GA. Semantic and letter flu- ency in Spanish-English bilinguals. Neuropsychology. 2002; 16(4):562-76. [DOI:10.1037/0894-4105.16.4.562] [PMID] [DOI:10.1037/0894-4105.16.4.562]
15. de Groot AM, Kroll JF. Tutorials in bilingualism: Psycho- linguistic perspectives. London: Psychology Press; 2014. [DOI:10.4324/9781315806051] [DOI:10.4324/9781315806051]
16. Bialystok E, Craik FI, Luk G. Bilingualism: Consequences for mind and brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2012; 16(4):240-50. [DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2012.03.001] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2012.03.001]
17. Ghamarigivi H, Nader M, Dehghani F. Examine the effective- ness of cognitive rehabilitation in reconstruction of executive functions of patients with obsessive-compulsive. Journal of Clini- cal Psychology. 2014; 4(16):101-28.
18. Kazempour Jahromi A, Bigdeli I, Rafiei Nia P. [Comparison of executive functions and working memory of people with obses- sive-compulsive disorder and normal people (Persian)]. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2015; 7(2):15-27.
19. Ghaffarian Shaiestegi M, Alizadeh H. [Effectiveness of percep- tual-visual exercises on improving the attention of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Persian)]. Journal of Dis- ability Studies. 2014; 4(9):53-9.
20. Izquierdo MC, Pérez MJ, Losa MA, López MM, Álvarez Pérez L, Solís G, et al. Psychometric properties of the D2 selective atten- tion test in a sample of premature and born-at-term babies. Psico- thema. 2007; 19(4):706-10.
21. Nejati V, Izadi Najafabadi S. [Comparison of the performance of high-performance autistic children with normal counterparts (Persian)]. Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2012; 8(1):28-39.
22. Mahmood Allylu M, Hamidi S, Shirvani A. [Comparison of executive functions and sustained attention in students with ob- sessive-compulsive symptoms, high schizotypal and overlapping symptoms with normal group (Persian)]. Research in Behavioral Science. 2011; 9(13):221-16.
23. Rezaei S, Manouchehri M. [Validity and standardization of the Torrance creativity test among high school teachers in Tehran (Persian)]. Journal of Psychology and Educational Sciences. 2008; 38(3):68-48.
24. Sefidgar ISAN. [Comparison of mental development and short- term memory between dyslexic and normal children (Persian)] [MSc. thesis]. Tabriz: Islamic Azad University; 2015.
25. Khayrkhah S. [The effect of using information and communi- cation technology education packages on the academic achieve- ment of science and creativity in elementary school students in Salmas city during the academic year 95-94 (Persian)] [MSc. the- sis]. Urmia: Islamic Azad University; 2015.
26. Grant A, Dennis NA, Li P. Cognitive control, cognitive reserve, and memory in the aging bilingual brain. Frontiers in Psychology. 2014; 5:1401. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01401] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01401]
27. Bahari Azimi Z. [Bilingual outcomes for mind and brain (Per- sian)] [MSc. thesis]. Paper presented at: National Conference on Bilingualism Challenges and Strategies. 17 October 2012; Shaz- and: Arak.
28. Bak TH, Alladi S. Can being bilingual affect the onset of demen- tia. Future Neurology. 2014; 9(2):101-3. [DOI:10.2217/fnl.14.8] [DOI:10.2217/fnl.14.8]
29. Colzato LS, Bajo MT, Van Den Wildenberg W, Paolieri D, Nieuwenhuis S, La Heij W, et al. How does bilingualism im- prove executive control? A comparison of active and reactive in- hibition mechanisms. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2008; 34(2):302-12.
30. Prior A, MacWhinney B. A bilingual advantage in task switch- ing. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. 2010; 13(2):253-62. [DOI:10.1017/S1366728909990526] [DOI:10.1017/S1366728909990526]
31. Fan J, McCandliss BD, Sommer T, Raz A, Posner MI. Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 2002; 14(3):340-7 [DOI:10.1162/089892902317361886] [PMID] [DOI:10.1162/089892902317361886]
32. Cohen A, Ivry RI, Keele SW. Attention and structure in se- quence learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1990; 16(1):17-30.
33. Stuss DT, Knight RT. Principles of frontal lobe function. Ox- ford: Oxford University Press; 2002. [DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134971.001.0001] [PMCID] [DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134971.001.0001]
34. Hommel B, Colzato LS, Fischer R, Christoffels I. Bilingualism and creativity: Benefits in convergent thinking come with losses in divergent thinking. Frontiers in Psychology. 2011; 2:273. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00273] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00273]
35. Fleith DD, Renzulli JS, Westberg KL. Effects of a creativity train- ing program on divergent thinking abilities and self-concept in monolingual and bilingual classrooms. Creativity Research Jour- nal. 2002; 14(3-4):373-86. [DOI:10.1207/S15326934CRJ1434_8] [DOI:10.1207/S15326934CRJ1434_8]
36. Villafuerte WJ. Brain signal complexity and creative ability in bilingual and monolingual children [PhD. dissertation]. Ontario, Toronto: University of Toronto; 2014.
37. Lee HE. The relationship between bilingualism and creativity of Korean Americans [PhD. dissertation]. Athens, Georgia: Uni- versity of Georgia; 2007.
38. Maddux WW, Adam H, Galinsky AD. When in Rome? Learn why the Romans do what they do: How multicultural learning experiences facilitate creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2010; 36(6):731-41. [DOI:10.1177/0146167210367786] [PMID] [DOI:10.1177/0146167210367786]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author


© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Ageing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb