Volume 12, Issue 4 (1-2018)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2018, 12(4): 402-413 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Entezari M, Shamsipour Dehkordi P, Sahaf R. Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Flexibility and Perfectionism in the Elderly. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2018; 12 (4) :402-413
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1190-en.html
1- Department of Motor Behavior and Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran.
3- Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , robabsahaf@gmail.com
Abstract:   (7928 Views)

Objectives In general, the older adults have limited physical activity. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effect of physical activity on cognitive flexibility and perfectionism in older adults. 
Methods & Materials The study followed the causal-comparative research design. A total of 126 elderly people from the neighborhood, elderly community, parks, gardens and recreational areas in the first and third districts of Tehran were selected for this research work using purposive sampling method. The participants completed demographic, cognitive status, CHAMPS physical activity, Hill’s perfectionism, and cognitive flexibility questionnaires.
Results A significant difference was observed in the relationship between perfectionism and cognitive flexibility in three groups of older adults with low, high and average physical activity levels (P<0.05). The mean scores of perceived control, perceived several solutions and justifications perception, cognitive flexibility and perfectionism were higher in aged people with high levels of physical activity compared to those having other levels of physical activity.
Conclusion Our findings indicate that physical activity can help improve cognitive flexibility and perfectionism in older adults. Also, an active lifestyle is recommended for older adults to enhance their cognitive factors.

Full-Text [PDF 2356 kb]   (3816 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (4284 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: gerontology
Received: 2017/04/11 | Accepted: 2017/07/03 | Published: 2018/01/01

1. World Health Organization. The world health report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
2. Alizadeh MH, Rajabi R, Gheytasi M, Minoonezhad H. [Movement theraphy (Persian)]. Tehran : University of Tehran; 2010.
3. Chudasama Y, Robbins TW. Functions of frontostriatal systems in cognition: Comparative neuro psychopharmacological studies in rats, monkeys and hu-mans. Biological Psychology. 2006; 73(1):19-38. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.01.005 [DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.01.005]
4. Dennis JP, Vander Wal JS. The cognitive flexibility inventory: Instrument development and estimates of reliability and validity. Cognitive Therapy and Re-search. 2010; 34(3):241-53. doi: 10.1007/s10608-009-9276-4 [DOI:10.1007/s10608-009-9276-4]
5. Davis RN, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and no ruminators. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2000; 24(6): 699-711. doi: 10.1023/A:1005591412406 [DOI:10.1023/A:1005591412406]
6. Egan SJ. An Investigation of positive and negative perfectionism [PhD thesis]. Perth: Curtin University of Technology; 2005.
7. Stoeber J, Damian LE. The Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire: Further evidence for two factors capturing perfectionist strivings and concerns. Personality and Individual Differences. 2014; 3(61):38-42. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.003]
8. Martin DJ, Oren Z, Boone K. Major depressives' and dysthymics' performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1991; 47(5):684-90. PMID: 1939715 https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(199109)47:5<684::AID-JCLP2270470509>3.0.CO;2-G [DOI:10.1002/1097-4679(199109)47:53.0.CO;2-G]
9. Stoeber J, Madigan DJ. Measuring perfectionism in sport, dance, and exercise: Review, critique, recommendations. In: Hill AP, editor. The Psychology of Perfectionism in Sport, Dance and Exercise; Abingdon: Routledge; 2016.
10. Phillips SM, Wójcicki TR, McAuley E. Physical activity and quality of life in older adults: An 18-month panel analysis. Quality of Life Research. 2013; 22(7):1647-54. doi: 10.1007/s11136-012-0319-z. [DOI:10.1007/s11136-012-0319-z]
11. Chang EC, Chu CH, Karageorghis CI, Wang CC, Tsai JH, Wang YS, et al. Relationship between mode of sport training and general cognitive performance. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2017; 6(1):89-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.07.007 [DOI:10.1016/j.jshs.2015.07.007]
12. Predovan D, Fraser SA, Renaud M, Bherer L. The effect of three months of aerobic training on stroop performance in older adults. Journal of Aging Re-search. 2012; (2):Article ID:269815. doi: 10.1155/2012/269815 [DOI:10.1155/2012/269815]
13. Netz Y, Tomer R, Axelrad S, Argov E, Inbar O. The effect of a single aerobic training session on cognitive flexibility in late middle-aged adults. Interna-tional Journal of Sports Medicine. 2007; 28(1):82-7. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-924027 [DOI:10.1055/s-2006-924027]
14. Sahaf R, Delbari A, Fadaye Vatan R, Rassafiani M, Sabour M, et al. [Validity and reliability of self-report physical activity Instruments for Iranian older people (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2014; 9(3):206-217.
15. Foroghan M, Jafari Z, Shirin bayan P, Ghaem magham Farahani Z, Rahgozar M. [Mini-mental state examination standardized cognitive Tehran (Persian)]. Advances in Cognitive Science. 2008; 10(2):29-37.
16. Samaei S, Hooman H.A, Hasanzade Tavakoli M, Bagherian F. An investigation of psychometric properties of perfectionism inventory in Iranian sample. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015; 205:556–63. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.09.075 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.09.075]
17. Fazeli M, Ehteshamzadeh P, Hashemi Sheikh Bahani SE. [The effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy on cognitive flexibility of depressed people (Per-sian)]. Journal of Thought & Behavior in Clinical Psychology. 2015; 9(34):27-36.
18. Masuda A, Tully EC. The role of mindfulness and psychological flexibility in summarization, depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress in a nonclinical college sample. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2012; 17(1):66-71. [DOI:10.1177/2156587211423400]
19. Hamachek DE. Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism. Psychology. Journal of Human Behavior. 1978; 15(1):27-33.
20. Kee N, Teixeira CM, Wang AH, Frankland PW. Preferential incorporation of adult-generated granule cells into spatial memory networks in the dentate gy-rus. Nature Neuroscience. 2007; 10(3): 355-62. doi: 10.1038/nn1847 [DOI:10.1038/nn1847]
21. Motefaker M, Sadrbafghi SM, Rafiee M, Bahadorzadeh L, Namayandeh SM, Karimi M, et al. [SuicEpidemiology of physical activity: A population based study in Yazd cityide attempt and its relation to stressors and supportive systems: A study in Karaj city (Persian)]. Tehran University Medical Journal. 2007; 65(4):77-81.
22. Florindo AA, Hallal PC, Moura ECD, Malta DC. [Practice of physical activities and associated factors in adults, Brazil, 2006 (Spanish)]. Revista de saúde pública. 2009; 43(2):65-73. doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102009000900009 [DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102009000900009]
23. Soori H. [Leisure time physical activity among adults and its association with medical services use in Ahwaz (Persian)]. Scientific Journal of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. 2003; 9(4):34-48.
24. Randles D, Flett GL, Nash KA, McGregor ID, Hewitt PL. Dimensions of perfectionism, behavioral inhibition, and rumination. Personality and Individual Differences. 2010; 49(2):83-7. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.002]
25. Hill EL. Evaluating the theory of executive dysfunction in autism. Developmental Review. 2004; 24(2):189-233. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2004.01.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.dr.2004.01.001]
26. Davis RN, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and no ruminators. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2000; 24(6):699-711. doi: 10.1023/A:1005591412406 [DOI:10.1023/A:1005591412406]
27. Danielle SM, Dana LR, Neil AC, Stan WS, Nancy HD. A mediated of perfectionism, affect, and physical health. Journal of Research in Personality. 2006; 40(5):482-500. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2005.04.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2005.04.002]
28. Quested E. Profiles of perfectionism, motivation, and self evaluations among dancers: An extended analysis of Cumming and Duda (2012). International Journal of Sport Psychology. 2014; 45(4): 349-68. doi: 10.7352/IJSP 2014.45.349
29. Taranis L, Meyer C. Perfectionism and compulsive exercise among female exercisers: High personal standards or self-criticism? Personality and Individual Differences. 2010; 49(1):3-7. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.02.024 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2010.02.024]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Ageing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb