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1- Assistant professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran. , sadoughi@kashanu.ac.ir
2- M.A. in Educational Psychology, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
Abstract:   (2266 Views)

Objectives: Nowadays, much attention is paid to psychological care of the elederly since they are exposed to potential threats related to increased age, loneliness, gradual decrease in physical activities, prevalence of chronic diseases, social isolation, and physical and mental disabilities. The positive psychology approach to mental well-being aims to enhance individuals’ mental health by identifying and developing psychological competences and abilities. Therefore, the present study was an attempt to predict psychological well-being of the elderly based on the components of positive psychology such as spirituality, gratitude toward God, and perceived social support.
Materials and method: The present study was descriptive with a correlational design. Two hundred and eleven elderly people with the age range of 60-70 years old 109 males (6/51) 102 females (4/48) were selected via random sampling. The participants provided their demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status, & socioeconomic status) and filled out Paloutzian and Ellisons’ Spirituality Wellbeing Questionnaire, Emmons’ Gratitude toward God, and Zimet’s Perceived Social Support Scale. SPSS (version 22) was used to analyze the obtained data descriptively (mean & standard deviation) and inferentially (Pearson Product Moment Correlation & Stepwise Regression Analysis).
Results: Mean and standard deviation of different variables are as follows: psychological well-being: 7.1±10.68; spirituality: 90.22±15.36; gratitude toward God: 14.09±2.41; social support from family: 21.6±4.2; social support from friends: 16.5±5.8; and social support from important others: 20.23±5. The results of stepwise correlation indicated that spirituality (β=.47, ∆R2=.22, F(1,209)=62.02, P=.001) social support from family (β=.21, ∆R2=.039, F(1,208)=11.06, P=.001) and gratitude toward God (β=.16, ∆R2=.017, F(1,207)=4.80, P=.001) could significantly explain 27% of the variance of well-being among the elderly.
Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that increased spirituality, gratitude towards God, and perceived social support especially from family can enhance psychological well-being among the elderly. Hence, it would beneficial to pay special attention to the elderly’s spiritual needs and their perceived social support in policy making as well as planning for health care so as to enhance their well-being and positive view to life. 

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Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: gerontology
Received: 2017/05/29 | Accepted: 2018/07/02

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