Volume 14, Issue 3 (Autumn 2019)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2019, 14(3): 356-367 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rashidi E, Hosseini Kakhak S A R, Askari R. The Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training With Low Load and High Load on Testosterone, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1, Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 Levels, and Functional Adaptations in Older Women. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2019; 14 (3) :356-367
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1498-en.html
1- Department of Sport Physiology and Sport Management, Faculty of Sciences Sport, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran. , smat_rashidi@yahoo.com
2- Department of Sport Physiology and Sport Management, Faculty of Sciences Sport, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
Full-Text [PDF 2569 kb]   (1463 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (4379 Views)
Full-Text:   (834 Views)
1. Introduction
Decreased muscle mass in older people is attributed to impaired skeletal muscle ability to respond to anabolic stimulation and to increase the activity of proteolytic signaling pathways [1]. According to studies, low exercise intensities like 30% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to voluntary fatigue are effective in stimulating muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy [2]. In other words, in fatigue conditions, increased activity of the motor unit leads to increased activity of high-threshold motor units that innervate type II fibers and increases stimulation for hypertrophy and muscle strength [3-5]. Since hormone changes and growth factors are involved in the effect of resistance training with different loads on muscle hypertrophy, this study aimed to investigate the impact of 8-week resistance training to volitional fatigue with 30% and 80% of 1RM on testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and functional adaptations in older women.
2. Materials and Methods
The study participants were 28 older women living in Mashhad City, Iran who were randomly assigned into three groups of resistance training with low load (RT+LL), 30% 1RM (n=12), resistance training with high load (RT+HL), 80% 1RM (n=8), and control (n=8). The training was conducted 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The training protocol included warming up, training to fatigue with low and high loads (30% and 80% of 1RM), and cooling down. The minimum number of repetitions was 20 for the RT+LL group and 8 for the RT+HL group.
To estimate the maximum strength of the participants, we used a weight by which the subject could perform training correctly up to 10 times. Using the Brzeski Equation (Formal 1), the maximum strength of the subjects was achieved in performing bench press and knee flexion to determine the maximum upper and lower body muscle strength [6].
1. 1RM= weight / [1.0278- (0.0278×number of repetitions)] 
The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to check the normality of the data distribution. The paired t test was used to examine within-group differences, and one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test were used to determine the differences between groups. The significance level was set at P<0.05.

3. Results
Five milliliters of blood samples were taken from the vein of subjects in the fasting time before the intervention and eight weeks after training to measure their biochemical factors. All factors were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method (Table 1).

The results showed that the resistance exercise had no significant effect on testosterone, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 levels (P>0.05). Both types of low-load and high-load training significantly increased lower body muscle strength and endurance (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05) (Table 2).

4. Conclusion
The results showed that eight weeks of low- and high-load resistance training to fatigue had no significant effect on IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and testosterone, but both types of exercise increased muscle strength and endurance in older women. Low-load resistance training significantly improved muscle function; also, it had a positive but not significant effect on some biochemical factors related to muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy. Although higher intensity resistance exercises may have more beneficial results, they can put too much pressure on the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system, and besides their potential unpleasant consequences, they can make the elderly feel tired and drained [8]. Therefore, it is recommended to use low-load resistance training where it is not possible to use high-load resistance training (e.g. in rehabilitation, chronic diseases, or physical disability).
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This study received its ethical approval from the Research Ethics Committee of Hakim Sabzevari University.
The present paper was extracted from the PhD. thesis of first Author, Esmat Rashidi, in Department of Sport Physiology and Sport Management, Faculty of Sciences Sport, Hakim Sabzevari University.
Authors' contributions
All authors contributed in preparing this article.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.
  1. Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: Report of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people. Age Ageing. 2010; 39(4):412-23. [DOI:10.1093/ageing/afq034] [PMID] [PMCID]
  2. Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Fielding RA, Fiatarone MA, Evans WJ, Roubenoff R. Aging of skeletal muscle: A 12-yr longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2000; 88(4):1321-6.[DOI:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.4.1321] [PMID]
  3. Hughes VA, Frontera WR, Roubenoff R, Evans WJ, Singh MA. Longitudinal changes in body composition in older men and women: Role of body weight change and physical activity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 76(2):473-81. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/76.2.473] [PMID]
  4. Landi F, Calvani R, Cesari M, Tosato M, Martone AM, Bernabei R, et al. Sarcopenia as the biological substrate of physical frailty. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 2015; 31(3):367-74. [DOI:10.1016/j.cger.2015.04.005] [PMID]
  5. Douchi T, Iemura A, Matsuo T, Kuwahata T, Oki T, Yoshimitsu N, et al. Relationship of head lean mass to regional bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2003; 46(3):225-30.[DOI:10.1016/S0378-5122(03)00195-6]
  6. Copeland JL, Consitt LA, Trembla MS. Hormonal responses to endurance and resistance exercise in females aged 19-69 years. Journal of Gerontology . 2002; 57(4):158-65. [DOI:10.1093/gerona/57.4.B158] [PMID]
  7. Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K, Newton RU, Nindl BC, Volek JS, McCormick M, et al. Effects of heavy-resistance training on hormonal response patterns in younger vs. older men. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1999; 87(3):982-92.[DOI:10.1152/jappl.1999.87.3.982] [PMID]
  8. Rosen CJ, Conover C. Growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in aging: A summary of a National Institutes of Aging-Sponsored Symposium. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1997; 82(12):3919-22. [DOI:10.1210/jc.82.12.3919]
  9. Phillips SM. Nutritional supplements in support of resistance exercise to counter age-related sarcopenia. Advances in Nutrition. 2015; 6(4):452-60. [DOI:10.3945/an.115.008367] [PMID] [PMCID]
  10. Gonzalez AM, Hoffman JR, Stout JR, Fukuda DH, Willoughby DS. Intramuscular anabolic signaling and endocrine response following resistance exercise: Implications for muscle hypertrophy. Sports Medicine. 2016; 46(5):671-85. [PMID] [PMCID]
  11. Masuda K, Choi JY, Shimojo H, Katsuta S. Maintenance of myoglobin concentration in human skeletal muscle after heavy resistance training. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 1999; 79(4):347-52. [DOI:10.1007/s004210050519] [PMID]
  12. Choi J, Takahashi H, Itai Y, Takamatsu K. The difference between effects of “power-up type” and “bulk-up type” strength training exercises. Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine. 1998; 47(1):119-29.[DOI:10.7600/jspfsm1949.47.119]
  13. Wernbom M, Augustsson J, Thomeé R. The influence of frequency, intensity, volume and mode of strength training on whole muscle cross-sectional area in humans. Sports Medicine. 2007; 37(3):225-64. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200737030-00004] [PMID]
  14. Fry AC. The role of resistance exercise intensity on muscle fibre adaptations. Sports Medicine. 2004; 34(10):663-79. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200434100-00004] [PMID]
  15. Barcelos LC, Nunes PR, de Souza LR, de Oliveira AA, Furlanetto R, Marocolo M, et al. Low-load resistance training promotes muscular adaptation regardless of vascular occlusion, load, or volume. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2015; 115(7):1559-68. [DOI:10.1007/s00421-015-3141-9] [PMID]
  16. Carpinelli RN. The size principle and a critical analysis of the unsubstantiated heavier-is-better recommendation for resistance training. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. 2008; 6(2):67-86.
  17. Goto KA, Ishii NA, Kizuka TO, Takamatsu KA. The impact of metabolic stress on hormonal responses and muscular adaptations. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2005; 37(6):955-63. [PMID]
  18. Van Roie E, Delecluse C, Coudyzer W. Boonen S, Bautmans I. Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: Effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Experimental Gerontology. 2013; 48(11):1351-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2013.08.010] [PMID]
  19. Burd NA, West DW, Staples AW, Atherton PJ, Baker JM, Moore DR, et al. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men. PLOS One. 2010; 5(8):e12033. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012033] [PMID] [PMCID]
  20. Mitchell CJ, Churchward-Venne Tyler A, West Daniel WD, Burd Nicholas A, Breen Leigh, Baker Steven K, et al. Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2012; 113 (1): 71-77. [DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00307.2012] [PMID] [PMCID]
  21. Ogasawara R, Loenneke JP, Thiebaud RS, Abe T. Low-load bench press training to fatigue results in muscle hypertrophy similar to high-load bench press training. International Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2013; 4(2):114-121. [DOI:10.4236/ijcm.2013.42022]
  22. Schoenfeld BJ, Peterson MD, Ogborn D, Contreras B, Sonmez GT. Effects of low- versus high-load resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in well-trained men. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2015; 29(10):2954-63. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000958] [PMID]
  23. Cassilhas RC, Viana VA, Grassmann V, Santos RT, Santos RF, Tufik S, et al. The impact of resistance exercise on the cognitive function of the elderly. J Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007; 39 (8): 1401-7. [DOI:10.1249/mss.0b013e318060111f] [PMID]
  24. Nindl BC, Kraemer WJ, Marx JO, Arciero PJ, Dohi K, Kellogg MD, et al. Overnight responses of the circulating IGF-I system after acute, heavy-resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2001; 90(4):1319-26. [DOI:10.1152/jappl.2001.90.4.1319] [PMID]
  25. Elloumi M, El Elj N, Zaouali M, Maso F, Filaire E, Tabka Z, et al. IGFBP-3 a sensitive marker of physical training and overtraining. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005; 39(9):604-10. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2004.014183] [PMID] [PMCID]
  26. Borst SE, De DH, Garzarella LI, Vincent KE, Pollock BH, Lowenthal DT, et al. Effects of resistance training on insulin-like growth factor-I and IGF binding proteins. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2001; 33(4):648-53.[DOI:10.1097/00005768-200104000-00021] [PMID]
  27. Izquierdo M, Ibanez J, Gonzales Badillo JJ, Hakkinnen K, Ratammes NA, Kraemer WJ, et al. Differential effects of strength training leading to failure not to failure on hormonal responses, strength and muscle power gains. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2006; 100(5):1647-56. [DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.01400.2005] [PMID]
  28. Schmitz KH, Ahmed RL, Yee D. Effects of a 9-month strength training intervention on insulin, Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-I, IGF-Binding Protein (IGFBP)-1, and IGFBP-3 in 30–50-year-old women. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers. 2002; 11(12):1597-604.
  29. Tsai CL, Wang CH, Pan CY, Chen FC. The effects of long-term resistance exercise on the relationship between neurocognitive performance and GH, IGF-1, and homocysteine levels in the elderly. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2015; 9:23. [DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00023]
  30. West DW, Phillips SM. Associations of exercise-induced hormone profiles and gains in strength and hypertrophy in a large cohort after weight training. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2012; 112(7): 2693-702. [DOI:10.1007/s00421-011-2246-z] [PMID] [PMCID]
  31. Wilkinson SB, Tarnopolsky MA, Grant EJ, Correia CE, Phillips SM. Hypertrophy with unilateral resistance exercise occurs without increases in endogenous anabolic hormone concentration. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2006; 98(6):546-55. [DOI:10.1007/s00421-006-0300-z] [PMID]
  32. Brzycki MA. Practical approach to strength training. Indianapolis. Shadeland: Blue River Press; 1995.
  33. Jones CJ, Rikli RE. Measuring functional. The Journal on Active Aging. 2002; 1:24-30.
  34. Fatouros I, Kambas A, Katrabasas I, Nikolaidis K, Chatzinikolaou A, Leontsini D, et al. Strength training and detraining effects on muscular strength, anaerobic power, and mobility of inactive older men are intensity dependent. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005; 39(10):776-80. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2005.019117] [PMID] [PMCID]
  35. Fahs CA, Loenneke JP, Thiebaud RS, Rossow LM, Kim D, Abe T, et al. Muscular adaptations to fatiguing exercise with and without blood flow restriction. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging, 2015; 35(3), 167-76. [DOI:10.1111/cpf.12141] [PMID]
  36. Steele James, Fisher James, Mc Guff Doug, Bruce Low Stewart, Smith Dave. Resistance training to momentary muscular failur improves cardiovascular fitness in humans: A review of acute physiological responses and chronic physiological adaptations. Journal of Exercise Physiology. 2012; 15(3):53-80.
  37. Kraemer WJ, Adams K, A-Dudley G, Dooly C, S-Feigenbaum M, Fleck SJ, et al. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2009; 41(3):687-708. [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181915670] [PMID]
  38. Ribeiro AS, Schoenfeld BJ, Fleck SJ, Pina FL, Nascimento MA, Cyrino ES. Effects of traditional and pyramidal resistance training systems on muscular strength, muscle mass, and hormonal responses in older women: A randomized crossover trial. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2017; 31(7):1888-96.[DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001653] [PMID]
  39. Hofmann M, Schober-Halper B, Oesen S, Franzke B, Tschan H, Bachl N, et al. Effects of elastic band resistance training and nutritional supplementation on muscle quality and circulating muscle growth and degradation factors of institutionalized elderly women: The Vienna Active Ageing Study (VAAS). European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2016; 116(5):885-97. [DOI:10.1007/s00421-016-3344-8] [PMID] [PMCID]
  40. So WY, Song M, Park YH, Cho BL, Lim JY, Kim SH, et al. Body composition, fitness level, anabolic hormones, and inflammatory cytokines in the elderly: A randomized controlled trial. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2013; 25(2):167-74. [DOI:10.1007/s40520-013-0032-y] [PMID]
  41. Lianne MK, Lauren A, Weiss SW, Graves RP, Gordon H, Williams MA, et al. (2005). Sex differences in the genetic basis of morning serum cortisol levels: Genome-wide screen identifies two novel loci specific to women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2005; 90(8):4747-52. [DOI:10.1210/jc.2005-0384] [PMID]
  42. Williams MA, Haskell WL, Ades PA, Amsterdam EA, Bittner V, Franklin BA, et al. Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2007; 116(5):572-84. [DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.185214] [PMID]
  43. Fisher J, Steele J, Smith D. High-and low-load resistance training: Interpretation and practical application of current research findings. Sports Medicine. 2017; 47(3):393-400. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-016-0602-1] [PMID]
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: General
Received: 2018/03/06 | Accepted: 2018/07/25 | Published: 2019/11/10

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2021 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Ageing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb