Volume 13, Issue 1 (4-2018)                   sija 2018, 13(1): 74-85 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mohammadi R, Fathei M, Hejazi K. Effect of Eight-Weeks Aerobic Training on Serum Levels of Nitric Oxide and Endothelin-1 in Overweight Elderly Men . sija. 2018; 13 (1) :74-85
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1323-en.html
1- Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Human Sciences, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran.
2- Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. , mfathei@um.ac.ir
3- Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Toos Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran.
Abstract:   (2857 Views)

Objectives Different physical activities can play an important role in improving health and cardiovascular fitness. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of high-intensity interval aerobic training on certain cardiovascular risk factors in overweight elderly men.
Methods & Materials In this semi-experimental study, 24 overweight elderly men were selected by convenience sampling. They were then randomly assigned into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI). The age range in the experimental group was 73.50±3.34 years (n=12) and that in control group was 71.33±3.44 years (n=12). The experimental group underwent high-intensity interval aerobic training that included 3 sessions (each of 45-60 minutes) a week for eight weeks. The control group was given no intervention.  Blood samples of all the subjects were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. All tests were two-tailed, and P<0.05 was considered significant. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16.0, SPSS). For comparison of means within and between the groups, paired and independent t-tests were used, respectively.  
Results The weight, BMI, and body fat percentage were found to have significantly decreased in overweight men after high-intensity interval aerobic training (P<0.05). Moreover, the levels of serum endothelin-1 reduced significantly after eight weeks of aerobic training. However, the levels of nitric oxide increased significantly at the end of the training period. 
Conclusion This result suggests that eight weeks of high-intensity interval aerobic training led to decreased endothelin-1 serum and increased nitric oxide levels. This is effective in improving cardiovascular health and reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is suggested that high-intensity interval aerobic training be used to prevent the adverse effects of an increased incidence of atherosclerosis.

Full-Text [PDF 2735 kb]   (1219 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (1936 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2017/10/05 | Accepted: 2018/01/30 | Published: 2018/04/01

1. Kim DY, Jung SY. Effect of aerobic exercise on risk factors of cardiovascular disease and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein a-1 ratio in obese woman. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2014; 26(11):1825–9. doi: 10.1589/jpts.26.1825 [DOI:10.1589/jpts.26.1825]
2. Puska P, Norrving B, Mendis S. Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
3. Mir E, Attarzadeh Hosseini SR, Hejazi K, Mir Sayeedi M. [Effect of eight weeks of endurance and resistance training on serum adiponectin and Insulin re-sistance index of inactive elderly men (Persian)]. Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2016; 18(1):69-77.
4. Olivetti G, Giordano G, Corradi D, Melissari M, Lagrasta C, Gambert SR, et al. Gender differences and aging: Effects on the human heart. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1995; 26(4):1068–79. doi: 10.1016/0735-1097(95)00282-8 [DOI:10.1016/0735-1097(95)00282-8]
5. Miyauchi T, Masaki T. Pathophysiology of endothelin in the cardiovascular system. 1999; 61(1):391–415. doi: 10.1146/annurev.physiol.61.1.391 [DOI:10.1146/annurev.physiol.61.1.391]
6. Guang-da X, Yun-lin W. Regular aerobic exercise training improves endothelium-dependent arterial dilation in patients with impaired fasting glucose. Di-abetes Care. 2004; 27(3):801–2. doi: 10.2337/diacare.27.3.801 [DOI:10.2337/diacare.27.3.801]
7. Zhang W, Li XJ, Zeng X, Shen DY, Liu CQ, Zhang H-J, et al. Activation of nuclear factor-κB pathway is responsible for tumor necrosis factor-α-induced up-regulation of endothelin B2 receptor expression in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Toxicology Letters. 2012; 209(2):107–12. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.12.005 [DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.12.005]
8. Green DJ, Maiorana A, O'Driscoll G, Taylor R. Effect of exercise training on endothelium-derived nitric oxide function in humans. The Journal of Physiolo-gy. 2004; 561(1):1–25. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2004.068197 [DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.068197]
9. Franke WD, Anderson DF. Relationship between physical activity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among law enforcement officers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 1994; 36(10):1127–32. doi: 10.1097/00043764-199410000-00016 [DOI:10.1097/00043764-199410000-00016]
10. Jarrete AP, Novais IP, Nunes HA, Puga GM, Delbin MA, Zanesco A. Influence of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular and endocrine-inflammatory biomarkers in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology. 2014; 1(3):108–14. doi: 10.1016/j.jcte.2014.07.004 [DOI:10.1016/j.jcte.2014.07.004]
11. Krause M, Rodrigues-Krause J, O'Hagan C, Medlow P, Davison G, Susta D, et al. The effects of aerobic exercise training at two different intensities in obe-sity and type 2 diabetes: implications for oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation and nitric oxide production. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2013; 114(2):251–60. doi: 10.1007/s00421-013-2769-6 [DOI:10.1007/s00421-013-2769-6]
12. Buttar HS, Li T, Ravi N. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: Role of exercise, dietary interventions, obesity and smoking cessation. Experimental & Clin-ical Cardiology. 2005; 10(4):229-49. PMCID: PMC2716237 [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Kromhout D. Prevention of coronary heart disease by diet and lifestyle: evidence from prospective cross-cultural, cohort, and intervention studies. Circula-tion. 2002; 105(7):893–8. doi: 10.1161/hc0702.103728 [DOI:10.1161/hc0702.103728]
14. Sternfeld B, Ainsworth BE, Quesenberry CP. Physical activity patterns in a diverse population of women. Preventive Medicine. 1999; 28(3):313–23. doi: 10.1006/pmed.1998.0470 [DOI:10.1006/pmed.1998.0470]
15. Bartlett JE, Kotrlik JW, Higgins CC. Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research appropriate sample size in survey re-search. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal. 2001; 19(1):43-50.
16. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wil-kins; 2013.
17. Irving BA, Davis CK, Brock DW, Weltman JY, Swift D, Barrett EJ, et al. Effect of exercise training intensity on abdominal visceral fat and body composi-tion. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2008; 40(11):1863–72. doi: 10.1249/mss.0b013e3181801d40 [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181801d40]
18. Donnelly J, Smith B, Jacobsen D, Kirk E, Dubose K, Hyder M, et al. The role of exercise for weight loss and maintenance. Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology. 2004; 18(6):1009–29. doi: 10.1016/s1521-6918(04)00083-6 [DOI:10.1016/S1521-6918(04)00083-6]
19. Slentz CA, Duscha BD, Johnson JL, Ketchum K, Aiken LB, Samsa GP, et al. Effects of the amount of exercise on body weight, body composition, and measures of central obesity. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2004; 164(1):31. doi: 10.1001/archinte.164.1.31 [DOI:10.1001/archinte.164.1.31]
20. Marra CC, Bottaro MM, Oliveira RJ, Novaes JS. Effect of moderate and high intensity aerobic exercise on body composition in over weight men. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2003; 35(Supplement 1):S308. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200305001-01705 [DOI:10.1097/00005768-200305001-01705]
21. De Glisezinski I, Moro C, Pillard F, Marion-Latard F, Harant I, Meste M, et al. Aerobic training improves exercise-induced lipolysis in SCAT and lipid utilization in overweight men. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2003; 285(5):E984–E990. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00152.2003 [DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00152.2003]
22. Martins C, Morgan LM, Bloom SR, Robertson MD. Effects of exercise on gut peptides, energy intake and appetite. Journal of Endocrinology. 2007; 193(2):251–8. doi: 10.1677/joe-06-0030 [DOI:10.1677/JOE-06-0030]
23. Horowitz JF. Fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2003; 14(8):386–92. doi: 10.1016/s1043-2760(03)00143-7 [DOI:10.1016/S1043-2760(03)00143-7]
24. Ghahremani Moghaddam M, Hejazi K. [Effect of aerobic training on Endothelin-1 and Malondialdehyde in inactive elderly women (Persian)]. Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2016; 18(3):52-57.
25. Maeda S, Tanabe T, Miyauchi T, Otsuki T, Sugawara J, Iemitsu M, et al. Aerobic exercise training reduces plasma endothelin-1 concentration in older women. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2003; 95(1):336–41. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01016.2002 [DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.01016.2002]
26. Muratli HH, Çelebi L, Hapa O, Biçimoğlu A. Comparison of plasma endothelin levels between osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal subjects. BMC Mus-culoskeletal Disorders. 2005; 6(1):49. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-6-49 [DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-6-49]
27. Donato A, Lesniewski L, Delp M. he effects of aging and exercise training on endothelin-1 vasoconstrictor responses in rat skeletal muscle arterioles. Cardi-ovascular Research. 2005; 66(2):393–401. doi: 10.1016/j.cardiores.2004.10.023 [DOI:10.1016/j.cardiores.2004.10.023]
28. Suen RS, Rampersad SN, Stewart DJ, Courtman DW. Differential roles of endothelin-1 in angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms in apolipoprotein E-null mice. The American Journal of Pathology. 2011; 179(3):1549–59. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.05.014 [DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.05.014]
29. Radovanovic D, Stankovic N, Ponorac N, Nurkic M, Bratic M. Oxidative stress in young judokas: effects of four week pre-competition training period. Ar-chives of Budo. 2012; 8:147–51. doi: 10.12659/aob.883328 [DOI:10.12659/AOB.883328]
30. Egginton S. Unorthodox angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Cardiovascular Research. 2001; 49(3):634–46. doi: 10.1016/s0008-6363(00)00282-0 [DOI:10.1016/S0008-6363(00)00282-0]
31. Cunningham KS, Gotlieb AI. The role of shear stress in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Laboratory Investigation. 2004; 85(1):9–23. doi: 10.1038/labinvest.3700215 [DOI:10.1038/labinvest.3700215]
32. Higashi Y, Yoshizumi M. Exercise and endothelial function: Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and oxidative stress in healthy subjects and hyperten-sive patients. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2004; 102(1):87–96. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2004.02.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2004.02.003]
33. Harrison Dg, Widder J, Grumbach I, Chen W, Weber M, Searles C. Endothelial mechanotransduction, nitric oxide and vascular inflammation. Journal of In-ternal Medicine. 2006; 259(4):351–63. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2006.01621.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2006.01621.x]
34. Irani K. Oxidant signaling in vascular cell growth, death, and survival: A review of the roles of reactive oxygen species in smooth muscle and endothelial cell mitogenic and apoptotic signaling. Circulation Research. 2000; 87(3):179–83. doi: 10.1161/01.res.87.3.179 [DOI:10.1161/01.RES.87.3.179]
35. Xu Q. Role of heat shock proteins in atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2002; 22(10):1547–59. doi: 10.1161/01.atv.0000029720.59649.50 [DOI:10.1161/01.ATV.0000029720.59649.50]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Ageing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb