Volume 15, Issue 4 (Winter - In Press 2021)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2021, 15(4): 1-1 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Alavi Z, Alipouri F, Rafiey H. Psychosocial Issues ‌of Retirement in Iran: ‌A Qualitative Study. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2021; 15 (4) :1-1
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1957-en.html
1- Department of Social Work, School of Behavioral Sciences, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Social Work, School of Behavioral Sciences, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , barbodalipour@gmail.com
3- Department of Social Welfare Management, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (1289 Views)
Objectives: Retirement as a potential challenge transition in aging has different effects on elderly people’s lives. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial consequences, obstacles, and facilitators of retirement.
Methods &Materials: The conventional content analysis method was used in this study. Samples were based on maximum diversity and purposeful sampling strategy. Participants were 22 experienced or scientific experts in retirement. Data were collected through semi-structured  interviews from February 2019 to September 2019. Granheim and Landman (2004) approach was used in data analysis.
Results: Fifty-nine percent of entire participants were male and forty one percents were female. Four main categories and thirteen subcategories were extracted which covered different psychosocial aspects of retirement. Psychosocial challenges were included emotional deprivation, reduction of psychological resilience, roles loss, social isolation, and family challenges. Post-retirement growth was categorized into two subcategories including develop active interests and activities, and freedom. In Retirement adjustment obstacles category identified health problems, lack of retirement plans, and macro system deficit as subcategories. Besides, contextual and supportive facilitators category was included individual characteristics, job characteristics, and social support systems.
Conclusion: The results showed that individuals face psychosocial challenges or growth opportunities in retirement. Furthermore, some obstacles and facilitators can affect retirement adjustment. Therefore, the preparation for retirement is an important subject in elderly care services.  elderlyService providers and health care professionals can use the finding of this study in their interventions to promote the psychosocial well-being of retirees and their families.‎
     
Type of Study: Research | Subject: social worker
Received: 2020/01/05 | Accepted: 2020/05/17 | Published: 2021/02/24

References
1. George L. Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences Academic Press 2010.
2. WHO. World Report on Ageing and Health: World Health Organization ‎; 2015. 23]. Available from: apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/.../‎‏9789240694811‏‎_eng.pdf?...‎‏1‏
3. Yeung DY, Zhou X. Planning for retirement: Longitudinal effect on retirement resources and post-retirement well-being. Frontiers in psychology. 2017;8(JUL). [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01300] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. fazel a. Women Against Women: Civil Servants Pension Organization; 2015. Available from: http://www.cspfiran.com/International/BookDetail.aspx?afght=eGWb8e4jfk697SGr72pFKg9mx&JcbDgr=TdjGv9dHGfWojt&Ed3t=312&bsdgty=HlasfBvfD87T43Tnd
5. Ageing in the Twenty-First Century: A Celebration and A Challenge. The United Nations Population Fund HelpAge International, 2012.
6. Henkens KvD, H.P.; Ekerdt, D.J.; Hershey, D.; Hyde, M.; Radl, J.; van Solinge, H.; Wang, M.; Zacher, H. What We Need to Know About Retirement: Pressing Issues for the Coming Decade. The Gerontologist. 2017: 1-8. [DOI:10.1093/geront/gnx095] [PMID]
7. Wang M, Henkens K, van Solinge H. A review of theoretical and empirical advancements. The American psychologist. 2011;66(3):204-13. [DOI:10.1037/a0022414] [PMID]
8. The New Meaning of Retirement [Internet]. ERIC Clearinghouse microfiches. 2000. Available from: https://www.ericdigests.org/‎‏2001-1‏‎/retirement.html‏ ‏.
9. Welfare benefit and retirees Ministry of labour and social effair 2017. Available from: https://hr.mcls.gov.ir/fa/refah/refahbazneshastegi/refahbazghkhadamatkeshvari.
10. Salman nezhad m. The national document for the welfare of older people approved: Civil Servants Pension Organization; 2017. Available from: http://cspf.ir/News.aspx?afght=GWb‏84‏jfk‏697‏SGr‏72‏pFKg‏9‏mx&JcbDg=TdjGv‏9‏dHGfWojFBApw‏5‏gdb‏91‏GDFAa‏3‏BXcdlPiv‏81‏GF‏0‏cio‏4‏sgdb&fdt‏3‏hd=‎‏2488‏&bsdgty=HlasfjHDSs‏8954‏tNBvfD‏87‏T‏43‏Tnd.
11. Sherry A, Tomlinson JM, Loe M, Johnston K, C.Feeney B. Apprehensive about retirement: Women, life transitions, and relationships Journal of Women & Aging. 2017;29(2):184-73. [DOI:10.1080/08952841.2015.1113728] [PMID]
12. Ryser VA, Wernli B. How does transitioning into retirement impact the ‎individual emotional system? Evidence from the Swiss context Advances in Life ‎Course Research. 2017;32(42-54). [DOI:10.1016/j.alcr.2016.08.001]
13. O'Rand A. Family pathways to retirement ‎. In: Szinovacz M, editor. Family Retirement: Sage; 1992. p. 81-9. [DOI:10.4135/9781483325354.n5]
14. Hillier SM, Barrow GM. Aging, the Individual, and Society. Tenth Edition ed: Cengage Learning; 2015.
15. Wheatley M. Framework for planning a successful retirement. Nursing Management. 2013;20(1):23-5. [DOI:10.7748/nm2013.04.20.1.23.e1050] [PMID]
16. Nobahar M, Ahmadi F, Alhani F, Fallahi Khoshknab M. Retired nurses' experience from retirement: A qualitative study. Journal of Health Promotion Management. 2012;1(4):69-80.
17. Cohen-Mansfield J, Regev I. Retirement preparation programs: An examination of ‎retirement perceptions, self-mastery, and well-being. Research on Social Work Practice. 2018;28(4):1-10. [DOI:10.1177/1049731516645194]
18. Atchley CR. Social Forces and Ageing. ‎‏5‏th ed. Belmont: Wadsworth ‎Publishing Company; 1988.
19. Po-Chi‏ CC. Retirement Planning, Transition and Life Satisfaction: A Study of Younger Male Retirees in Hong Kong: THE EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF ‎HONG KONG; 2016.
20. A M, A B, M S. Prediction of Psychological Well-Being of the Elderly Based on the Power of Stress Management and Social Support. sija. 2018;13(1):98-109. [DOI:10.21859/sija.13.1.98]
21. Steffens N, Cruwys T, Haslam C, ‎Jetten J, Haslam S. BMJ open. Social group memberships in retirement are associated with reduced risk ‎of premature death: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study. 2016;6(2):e‏010164‏. [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010164] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Banks J, Batty GD, Begum N, Demakakos P, Oliveira Cd, Head J, et al. Evidence from the english longitudinal study of aging 2002-15‏‎ (WAVE 7)‎‏. 2016.
23. Matthews K, Nazroo J. Retirement, well-being, engagement and social status. Wave 72016. p. 57.
24. Weir D. ‎Aging in the ‎‏21‏st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for American(Health and retirement study). INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH 2017.
25. Yeung DY, Zhou X. Planning for Retirement: Longitudinal Effect on Retirement Resources and Post-‎retirement Well-being. Frontiers in psychology. 2017;8:1300. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01300] [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Calvo E, Sarkisian N. Retirement and well-being: Examining the characteristics of life course transitions. Documento de Trabajo. 2011;2.
27. Rau BL, Adams GA. Aging, retirement, and human resources management: A strategic approach. In: Wang M, editor. The Oxford handbook of retirement Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2013. p. 117-35. [DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199746521.013.0054]
28. Sabbath E, Lubben J, Goldberg M, Zins M, Berkman L. Social engagement across the retirement transition among "young-old" adults in the ‎French GAZEL cohort. Eur J Ageing. 2015;12(4):311-20. [DOI:10.1007/s10433-015-0348-x] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. Miller DB, Hokenstad T, Berg K. The PresentRetirement Crisis and How ‎Social Workers Can Respond Journal of Gerontological Social Work. 2017;60(5):395-407. [DOI:10.1080/01634372.2017.1343756] [PMID]
30. Saffarinia M, Dortaj A. Effect of Group Logotherapy on Life Expectancy and Mental and Social Wellbeing of The Female Elderly Residents of Nursing Homes in Dubai. sija. 2018;12(4):482-93. [DOI:10.21859/sija.12.4.482]
31. Reisi A, Fathi Ashtiani A, Salimi SH, Rabie M. Considering the General Health of Retired High Rank Police Officers and Providing Some Solutions to Reduce Their Psychological Problem during Retirement. J Police Med. 2017;5(5):351-60.
32. Danaeifard H, Khaef Elahi A, Khodashenas L. Understanding the Essence of Retirement Experience of Employees in the Public Sector: A Phenomenological Research. Strategic Management Thought. 2013;6(2):153-76.
33. Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today. 2004;24(2):105-12. [DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001] [PMID]
34. O'Brien BC, Harris IB, Beckman TJ, Reed DA, Cook DA. Standards for reporting qualitative research: a synthesis of recommendations. Academic Medicine. 2014;89(9):1245-51. [DOI:10.1097/ACM.0000000000000388] [PMID]
35. Holloway I, Galvin K. Qualitative Research in Nursing and Healthcare: John Wiley & Sons; 2016.
36. Rezapour Nasrabad R. Criteria of Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Research. Journal of qualitative Research in Health Sciences. 2018;6(4):493-9.
37. Lindwall M, Berg AI, Bjalkebring P, Buratti S, Hansson I, Hassing L, et al. Psychological Health in the Retirement Transition: Rationale and First Findings in the HEalth, Ageing and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) Study. Frontiers in psychology. 2017;8:1634. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01634] [PMID] [PMCID]
38. Mukku SSR, Harbishettar V, Sivakumar PT. Psychological morbidity after job retirement: A review. Asian journal of psychiatry. 2018;37:58-63. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2018.08.003] [PMID]
39. Abdulkadir A, Rasaq AO, Gafar I. Psychological Effects of Retirement of Retirees: Implications for Counselling. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences. 2018;13(1):15-22. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v13i1.3365 [DOI:10.18844/cjes.v13i1.3309]
40. Ng SM, Leng L, Wang Q. Active Interest Mentorship for Soon-to-Retire People. Journal of applied gerontology : the official journal of the Southern Gerontological Society. 2017:733464816687448.
41. Durgante H, Dell'Aglio DD. Multicomponent positive psychology intervention for health promotion of Brazilian retirees: a quasi-experimental study. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica. 2019;32(1):6. [DOI:10.1186/s41155-019-0119-2] [PMID] [PMCID]
42. Wodarski JS, Thyer BA. Handbook of Empirical Social Work Practice, Volume 2: Social Problems and Practice Issues: John Wiley & Sons; 1998.
43. Kianpour ghahfarokhi F, Zandian KM. Evaluation of health position in retired Ahvazian residents. Scientific Medical Journal. 2010;9(5 (68)):-.
44. Nobahar M, Ahmadi F, Alhani F, Fallahi Khoshknab M. The Challenges of Transition to Retirement from the Point of View of Retired Nurses: Shock and disbelief. J Qual Res Health Sci. 2012;1(2):112-22.
45. Salimi E. Survey of mental health and life satisfaction in retired elderly referred to
46. retirement's centers in Ahvaz: Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences; 2014 [cited Master].
47. Kojola E, Moen P. No more lock-step retirement: Boomers' shifting meanings of work and retirement. Journal of aging studies. 2016;36:59-70. [DOI:10.1016/j.jaging.2015.12.003] [PMID]
48. Barbosa LM, Monteiro B, Murta SG. Retirement adjustment predictors-A systematic review. Work, Aging and Retirement. 2016;2(2):262-80. [DOI:10.1093/workar/waw008]
49. van der Heide I, van Rijn RM, Robroek SJW, Burdorf A, Proper KI. Is retirement good for your health? A systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):1180. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1180] [PMID] [PMCID]
50. Golparvar M, Bozorgmehri K, Kazemi MS. Integrative Relationship Between Retirement Syndromes Components With General Health Symptoms Among Retired Adults. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2011;6(2):0-.
51. Van Solinge H. Health change in retirement. A longitudinal study among older workers in the Netherlands. Research on Aging‎. 2007;29(3):225-56‎. [DOI:10.1177/0164027506298223]
52. Abedi HA, Mohammadi MH, Paknejad F. Investigation of daily living situation after retirement, Isfahan, 2000. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. 2002;3(4):1-8.
53. Nobahar M. Explaining of adaptation process in retired nurses: Model Design Tehran: Tarbiat Modares; 2011.
54. Tavernier Wd, Aartsen M. Old-Age Exclusion: Active Ageing, Ageism and Agency. Social Inclusion. 2019;7(3):1-3. [DOI:10.17645/si.v7i3.2372]
55. McConatha JT, Volkwein-Caplan K, Vita ME, Mauriello M, DiGregorio N. American and German men and women discuss retirement: A qualitative study. Open Psychology Journal. 2009;2:33-9. [DOI:10.2174/1874350100902010033]
56. Alpass F, Neville S, Flett R. Contribution of retirement-related variables to well-being in an older male sample. 2000.
57. Shafiee E, Rezaiee F. The Relationship between job satisfaction, quality of life and retirement satisfaction in retired Counseling Culture and Psycotherapy. 2016;7(27):189-210.
58. Heybroek L, Haynes M, Baxter J. Life satisfaction and retirement in Australia: A longitudinal approach. Work, Aging and Retirement. 2015;1(2):166-80. [DOI:10.1093/workar/wav006]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2021 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Ageing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb