Volume 16, Issue 2 (Summer 2021)                   Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing 2021, 16(2): 218-233 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Alemi S, Abolmaali Alhosseini K, Malihialzackerini S, Khabiri M. Effect of Mindfulness Therapy and Aromatherapy Massage on Pain Perception, Quality of Life and Sleep Quality in Older Women With Chronic Pain. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2021; 16 (2) :218-233
URL: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-2096-en.html
1- Department of Health Psychology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.
2- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran. , abolmaali@riau.ac.ir
3- Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (2047 Views)
Objectives: Aging is one of the phenomena in the field of global health. It is very important to pay attention to older adults psychologically and physically. This study aims to evaluate the effect of mindfulness therapy combined with aromatherapy massage on the psychological functions of older women with chronic pain.
Methods & Materials: This is a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test, follow-up design using a control group. The study population consists of all older women with chronic pain referred to hospitals, clinics, and rehabilitation centers in the west of Tehran, Iran in 2017. By using a convenience sampling method, 30 women were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly divided into two matched groups. The intervention group underwent mindfulness group therapy plus aromatherapy massage at ten 120-min sessions while the control group received no intervention. Their pain perception, sleep quality, and quality of life as psychological functions were evaluated at baseline, at the end of intervention and 45 days later. Collected data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance method in SPSS v. 19 software.
Results: The mindfulness therapy/aromatherapy massage significantly reduced the pain perception and its components and improved quality of life and sleep quality in the intervention group compared to the control group (P<0.05), and these effects remained stable in the follow-up phase.
Conclusion: mindfulness therapy combined with aromatherapy massage improves the quality of life and sleep and reduces chronic pain in older women. It can be used as an effective intervention for improving general health and quality of life in older patients with chronic pain.
Full-Text [PDF 6832 kb]   (1000 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (545 Views)  
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2020/09/18 | Accepted: 2021/01/16 | Published: 2021/07/01

1. Fotoukian Z, Mohammadi Shahboulaghi F, Fallahi Khoshknab M. Analytical on (2013). empowerment interventions in older people with chronic disease: A review literature. JHPM. 2 (4) :65-76.
2. Iliaz R, Ozturk GB, Akpinar TS, Tufan A, Sarihan I, Erten N, et al. Approach to Pain in the Elderly. J Gerontol Geriatric Res. 2013 2(3): 179-87.
3. Kaye AD, Baluch A, Scott JT. Pain management in the elderly population: a review. Ochsner J. 2010;10(3):179-87. PMID: 21603375
4. Asghari Moghaddam MA, Najarian B, Mohammadi M, Dehghani M. Psychology of Pain: Control and treatment approaches. Tehran: Roshd; 2002.
5. Turk DC, Swanson K. Efficacy and cost effectiveness treatment for chronic pain: An analysis and evidence-based synthesis. In: Schatman ME, Campbell A, editors. Chronic pain management: guidelines for multidisciplinary program development. New York, London: Informa healthcare;2007.15-38. [DOI:10.3109/9781420045130-2]
6. Mohammadi F, Mohammadkhani P, Dolatshahi B, Asghari M A. The Effects of "Mindfulness Meditation for Pain Management" on the Severity of Perceived Pain and Disability in Patients With Chronic Pain. sija. 2011; 6 (1).
7. Asghari MA, Karami B, Rezaie S. Prevalence of chronic pain and pain in the city of Ilam Ghorveh. Journal of Psychology 2002; 6: 30-50.
8. Asghari MA. Investigating the prevalence of recurrent chronic pain and it s effect on social performance in industrial unit in Tehran. 2004;11(4): 1-14.
9. Asghari A, Ghaderi N, Ashory A. The prevalence of pain among residents of nursing homes and the impact of pain on their mood and quality of life. Archives of Iranian Medicine 2006; 9(4): 368-373.
10. Blyth FM, March LM, Brnabic AJM, Jorm LR, Williamso M, Cousins MJ. Chronic pain in Australia: a prevalence study. Pain 2001; 89: 127-134. [DOI:10.1016/S0304-3959(00)00355-9]
11. Philips HC, Jahanshahi M. The components of pain behavior report. Behav Res Ther 1986; 24: 112-125. [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(86)90082-3]
12. Keefe FJ, Lefebvre JC, Egert JR, Afueck G, Sullivan MJ,Caldwell DS. The relationship of gender to pain, pain behavior and disability in osteoarthirites patients: the role of catastrophising. Pain 2000; 67(3): 325-334. [DOI:10.1016/S0304-3959(00)00296-7]
13. Shirazi M, Manoochehri H, Zagheri Tafreshi M, Zayeri F, Alipour V. [Prevalence of chronic pain and its characteristics among elderly people in Ahvaz city: A cross sectional study (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Geriatric Nursing. 2015; 2(1):62-78.
14. Chen Q, Hayman LL, Shmerling RH, Bean JF, Leveille SG. Characteristics of chronic pain associated with sleep difficulty in older adults: The Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2011; 59(8):1385-92. [DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03544.x] [DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03544.x]
15. santos FC, Moraes NSd, Pastore A, Cendoroglo MS. Chronic pain in long-lived elderly: prevalence, characteristics, measurements and correlation with serum vitamin D level. Revista Dor. 2015; 16(3):171-5. [DOI:10.5935/1806-0013.20150034] [DOI:10.5935/1806-0013.20150034]
16. Kaye, A. D., Baluch, A. R., Kaye, R. J., Niaz, R. S., Kaye, A. J., Liu, H., & Fox, C. J. (2014). Geriatric pain management, pharmacological and nonpharmacological considerations. Psychology & Neuroscience, 7(1), 15. [DOI:10.3922/j.psns.2014.1.04]
17. Van Lerberghe, W. (2008). The world health report 2008: primary health care: now more than ever. World Health Organization.
18. Eggermont, L. H., Leveille, S. G., Shi, L., Kiely, D. K., Shmerling, R. H., Jones, R. N., ... & Bean, J. F. (2014). Pain characteristics associated with the onset of disability in older adults: the maintenance of balance, independent living, intellect, and zest in the Elderly Boston Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(6), 1007-1016. [DOI:10.1111/jgs.12848]
19. Silver, J. K. (2009). Chronic pain and the family. Harvard University Press. [DOI:10.2307/j.ctvjz817h]
20. Roy, R. (2006). Chronic pain and family: A clinical perspective. Springer Science & Business Media.
21. Riahi, A. (2009) Comparative study of the position and status of elderly people in the past and contemporary societies. Iranian Journal of Ageing 2009; 3(9): 9-21. [In Persian]
22. Finan, P. H., Goodin, B. R., & Smith, M. T. (2013). The association of sleep and pain: an update and a path forward. The Journal of Pain, 14(12), 1539-1552. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2013.08.007]
23. Berk, M. (2009). Sleep and depression: theory and practice. Australian Family Physician, 38(5), 302.
24. Crombez, G., Vlaeyen, J. W., Heuts, P. H., & Lysens, R. (1999). Pain-related fear is more disabling than pain itself: evidence on the role of pain-related fear in chronic back pain disability. Pain, 80(1), 329-339. [DOI:10.1016/S0304-3959(98)00229-2]
25. Dahl, J., & Lundgren, T. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in the treatment of chronic pain. Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician's guide to evidence base and applications, 285-306. [DOI:10.1016/B978-012088519-0/50014-9]
26. Narimani, M., Ariapooran, S., Abolghasemi, A., & Ahadi, B. (2012). Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction and emotion regulation training in the affect and mood of chemical weapons victims. Arak Medical University Journal, 15(2), 107-118.
27. Salimzade, O., Pourhosein, R., & Lavasani, M. (2014). Investigating the effectteaching mindfulness-based stress reduction in reducing pschological symptoms in adolescent boys in dorms. International journal of behavioral social and movement sciences, 3(4), 44-9.
28. Goldin, P. R., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 10(1), 83. [DOI:10.1037/a0018441]
29. Thomas, M. (2008). Effectiveness of Sports Massage for Recovery of Skeletal Muscle From Strenuous Exercise/M. Best Thomas, Robin Hunter, Aaron Wilcox, and Furqan Haq. Clin J Sport Med, 18(5), 446-460. [DOI:10.1097/JSM.0b013e31818837a1]
30. Sherman, K. J., Cherkin, D. C., Kahn, J., Erro, J., Hrbek, A., Deyo, R. A., & Eisenberg, D. M. (2005). A survey of training and practice patterns of massage therapists in two US states. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 5(1), 13. [DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-5-13]
31. Sarmad, Zohre, Abbas Bazargan and Elahe Hejazi (1997); Research Methods in Behavioral Science; Tehran: Aghah Press (in Persian).
32. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living. New York: Delta Publishing.
33. Dworkin RH, Turk DC, Revicki DA, Harding G, Coyne KS, Peirce-Sandner S,et al. Development and initial validation of an expanded and revised version of the Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-2). Pain 2009;144:35-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2009.02.007]
34. Heidari, Alireza; Ehteshamzadeh, Parvin; Marashi, Mandana. (2010). Relationship between insomnia severity, sleep quality, drowsiness and mental health disorder with academic performance in girls. Journal of Women and Culture, 1 (4), 65-76.
35. Buysse, D. J., Reynolds Iii, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193-213. [DOI:10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4]
36. Nejat S, Montazeri A, Holakouee Naini K, Mohammad K, Majd Zadeh R. Standardization of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BRIF): translation and psychometric assessment of Iranian species] [Article in Persian] JSHPHRI. 2006;4:1-12.
37. Nejati V, Ashayeri H. [Health-related quality of life among elderly in Kashan]. IJPCP 2008, 14(1): 56-61. Persian.
38. Plews‐Ogan, M., Owens, J. E., Goodman, M., Wolfe, P., & Schorling, J. (2005). BRIEF REPORT: A Pilot Study Evaluating Mindfulness‐Based Stress Reduction and Massage for the Management of Chronic Pain. Journal of general internal medicine, 20(12), 1136-1138. [DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.0247.x]
39. Swain, N., Lennox Thompson, B., Gallagher, S., Paddison, J., & Mercer, S. (2020). Gratitude Enhanced Mindfulness (GEM): A pilot study of an internet-delivered programme for self-management of pain and disability in people with arthritis. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 15(3), 420-426. [DOI:10.1080/17439760.2019.1627397]
40. Allone, C., Corallo, F., Scarlata, F., Formica, C., Cartella, E., Buono, V. L., ... & Marino, S. (2019). Mindfulness interventions and pain management in a patient with encephalomyelitis. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 36, 69-71. [DOI:10.1016/j.ctcp.2019.06.001]
41. Firoozi, M., & Rouhi, S. (2020). Couple Therapy Based on Mindfulness to Improve the Satisfaction of Life and Pain Self-Efficacy in Patients with Chronic Pain. The Open Pain Journal, 13(1). [DOI:10.2174/1876386302013010001]
42. Marchand, W. R. (2012). Mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and Zen meditation for depression, anxiety, pain, and psychological distress. Journal of Psychiatric Practice®, 18(4), 233-252. [DOI:10.1097/01.pra.0000416014.53215.86]
43. Cheatham, S. W., & Stull, K. R. (2019). Roller massage: Comparison of three different surface type pattern foam rollers on passive knee range of motion and pain perception. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 23(3), 555-560. [DOI:10.1016/j.jbmt.2019.05.002]
44. Nunes, G. S., Bender, P. U., de Menezes, F. S., Yamashitafuji, I., Vargas, V. Z., & Wageck, B. (2016). Massage therapy decreases pain and perceived fatigue after long-distance Ironman triathlon: a randomised trial. Journal of physiotherapy, 62(2), 83-87. [DOI:10.1016/j.jphys.2016.02.009]
45. Ayik, C., & Özden, D. (2018). The effects of preoperative aromatherapy massage on anxiety and sleep quality of colorectal surgery patients: A randomized controlled study. Complementary therapies in medicine, 36, 93-99. [DOI:10.1016/j.ctim.2017.12.002]
46. Dubrovsky V. (2005). The Effect of Massage on Athlete's Cardiorespiratory System. Soviet Sport Review. 25: 36-38.
47. Sarafino, E. P., & Smith, T. W. (2014). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions. John Wiley & Sons.‏
48. Seo, S. Y., & Chang, S. Y. (2009). Effects of Aroma Hand Massage On Sleep, Depression and Quality of Life in the Institutionalized Elderly Women. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing, 15(4). [DOI:10.4069/kjwhn.2009.15.4.372]
49. Yang, H. J., Kang, H. Y., & Kim, I. S. (2011). The effects of aroma foot reflex massage on sleep, depression and problem behaviors on elderly with dementia. Korean Journal of Adult Nursing, 23(6), 574-583.
50. Qu WM, Xu XH, Yan MM, Wang YQ, Urade Y, Huang ZL. Essential role of dopamineD2 receptor in the maintenance of wakefulness, but not in homeostatic regulationof sleep, in mice. J Neurosci. 2010; 30(12): 4382-89. [DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4936-09.2010]
51. Lu J, Jhou TC, Saper CB. Identification of wakeactive dopaminergic neurons in theventral periaqueductal gray matter. J Neurosci. 2006; 26(1): 193-202. [DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2244-05.2006]
52. Nyklíček, I., & Kuijpers, K. F. (2008). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention on psychological well-being and quality of life: is increased mindfulness indeed the mechanism?. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35(3), 331-340. [DOI:10.1007/s12160-008-9030-2]
53. Kashani, F., & Kashani, P. (2014). The effect of massage therapy on the quality of sleep in breast cancer patients. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 19(2), 113.
54. Shinde, M. B., & Anjum, S. (2014). Effectiveness of slow back massage on quality of sleep among ICU patent's. IJSR, 3(3), 292-8.
55. Oshvandi, K., ABDI, S., Karampourian, A., Moghimbaghi, A., & HOMAYOUNFAR, S. (2014). The effect of foot massage on quality of sleep in ischemic heart disease patients hospitalized in CCU.
56. Carlson, L. E., & Garland, S. N. (2005). Impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on sleep, mood, stress and fatigue symptoms in cancer outpatients. International journal of behavioral medicine, 12(4), 278-285. [DOI:10.1207/s15327558ijbm1204_9]
57. Liu, Q. Q., Zhou, Z. K., Yang, X. J., Kong, F. C., Sun, X. J., & Fan, C. Y. (2018). Mindfulness and sleep quality in adolescents: Analysis of rumination as a mediator and self-control as a moderator. Personality and Individual Differences, 122, 171-176. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2017.10.031]
58. Park, M., Zhang, Y., Price, L. L., Bannuru, R. R., & Wang, C. (2020). Mindfulness is associated with sleep quality among patients with fibromyalgia. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 23(3), 294-301. [DOI:10.1111/1756-185X.13756]
59. Rosenzweig S,.Greeso JM, Reibel DK, Green JS, Jasser SA, Beasley D.Mindfulness-based stress reduction for chronic pain conditions: Variationin treatment outcomes and role of home meditation practice.Journal of Psychosomatic Research 68 (2010) 29 - 36. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.03.010]
60. Flugel Colle, K F. Cha, S S. Loehrer, L. Bauer, B A. Wahner-Roedler, D L. Measurement of quality of life and participant experience with the mindfulnessbased stress reduction program.Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 16 (2010) 36-40. [DOI:10.1016/j.ctcp.2009.06.008]
61. Morone NE, Greco CM, Weiner DK. Mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic low back pain in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study. Pain 2008;134:310-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2007.04.038]
62. Morone NE, Greco CM (2007). Mind-body interventions for chronic pain in older adults: A structured review. Pain Med 8:359-375. [DOI:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00312.x]
63. Alemi S, Malihialzackerini S, Abolmaali Alhoseini K, Khabiri M. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training and Massage-Aromatherapy on Rising Psychological Health of Elderly Women with Chronic Pain. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot. 2019; 7 (4) :359-370. [DOI:10.29252/ijhehp.7.4.359]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Ageing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb